Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a nanofibrilar polymer produced by strains such as Gluconacetobacter xylinus, one of the best bacterial species which given the highest efficiency in cellulose production. Bacterial cellulose is a biomaterial having unique properties such as: chemical purity, good mechanical strength, high flexibility, high absorbency, possibility of forming any shape and size and many others. Such a large number of advantages contributes to the widespread use of the BNC in food technology, paper, electronic industry, but also the architecture in use. However, the greatest hopes are using the BNC in medicine. This text contains information about bacterial nanocellulose, its specific mechanical and biological properties and current applications.