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Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, Circadian Disruption, Antioxidants And Pancreatic Carcinoma: An Overview

Aldo Giudice, Anna Crispo, Galdiero Massimiliano, Giovanni D’Arena, Mario Felice Tecce, Maria Grimaldi, Alfonso Amore, Emanuela Esposito, Maurizio Montella

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The incidence and number of deaths caused by pancreatic tumours have been gradually rising, while the incidence and mortality of other common cancers have been declining. Risk factors for this malignant disease include cigarette smoking, family history of chronic pancreatitis, advancing age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, obesity, non-0 blood group, a high-fat diet, alcohol consumption and possibly Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis B virus infections. Metabolic diseases have become the leading cause of death in many countries. Our paper serves as a focused and updated discussion about the development of novel preventive strategies for this deadly disease. Abbreviations. ARE: antioxidant response element; COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2; IGFs: insulin-like growthfactors; IGF1R: IGF-1 receptor; MetS: metabolic syndrome; NAFLD: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;NAFPD: non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease; NASH: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; NASP: non-alcoholic steatopancreatitis; PPARγ : peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ; PPARs: peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptors.