Multiscale Simulations Of The RF Diode Sputtering Of Copper
The morphology and microstructure of RF diode sputter deposited materials is a complicated function of many parameters of the reactor operating conditions. Using a combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), RF plasma, molecular dynamics (MD) sputter, and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) transport models, a multiscale approach has been used to analyze the RF diode sputtering of copper. The CFD model predicts the velocity and pressure distribution of the working gas flows in the deposition chamber. The plasma model uses these CFD results to compute ion energies and fluxes at the target and substrate. The MD model of sputtering is used to determine the initial energy distribution of sputtered atoms and reflected neutral working gas atoms and both of their angular distributions. A DSMC transport model then deduces the target atom deposition efficiency, the spatial distribution of the film thickness, the target and reflected neutral atoms energy and impact angle distributions given reactor operating input conditions such as background pressure, temperature, gas type, together with the reactor geometry. These results can then be used in atomistic growth models to begin a systematic evaluation of surface morphology, nanoscale structure, and defects dependences upon the reactor design and its operating conditions.