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Chronic Kidney Disease In Pregnancy And Fetomaternal Outcome

Pooja Gupta, Indu Chawla, Anjum Ara, Renuka Malik

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Background: Chronic kidney disease is a heterogeneous group of renal dysfunctions with complex and varied presentations in pregnancy. With a long asymptomatic course, timely diagnosis and management is crucial for fetomaternal wellbeing.Methods: A retrospective cohort study over a period of 3 years and 4 months included all obstetric in patients with known or newly diagnosed renal disorders. Maternal outcome was measured with regard to biochemical parameters presence /absence of proteinuria, hypertension, mode of pregnancy termination and complications. Fetal outcome was noted with respect to antenatal complications, weight, Apgar, NICU stay. Computation of results was done using percentages, mean and proportions.Results: Out of 13 women studied, 53.8% were pre-diagnosed cases of renal dysfunction and 46.2% were diagnosed during pregnancy. 38% had proteinuria at first visit and 50% remained so even after delivery. 60% had history of pregnancy induced hypertension in their previous pregnancies. Secondary hypertension and superimposed preeclampsia were seen in 30% and 38% cases respectively, with only one patient requiring magnesium sulphate prophylaxis in post-partum. Cardiac dysfunction was found to be coexisting in 15.3% cases with pre-existing renal leision. Intrauterine growth restriction was seen in 61.5% cases Average fetal weight was 2. 26kg with 30% having NICU stay. 30.6% had preterm delivery. Mode of delivery was caesarean section in 46% cases.Conclusions: Pregnancy with CKD is a high-risk pregnancy with adverse fetomaternal outcomes. For optimal pregnancy outcomes, an expert multidisciplinary team is required. With limited studies in south Asian population, there needs to be an upgradation in registry system.