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Topical Nepafenac For Prevention Of Post-cataract Surgery Macular Edema In Diabetic Patients: Patient Selection And Perspectives
Published 2017 · Medicine
Since its first description, the prevention of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) continues to pose challenges for ophthalmologists. Recent evidence suggests that prophylaxis is unnecessary in patients without risk factors. Diabetes mellitus is generally considered as a risk factor for the development of PCME after cataract surgery since it causes breakdown of the blood–retinal barrier. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) increases the risk even further. Therefore, prophylactic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be considered in diabetic patients, especially if they have DR. NSAIDs block the cyclooxygenase enzymes responsible for prostaglandin production and reduce the incidence of PCME after cataract surgery. Nepafenac seems superior to other NSAIDs in terms of ocular penetration allowing higher and sustained therapeutic levels in retina and choroid. Topical steroids are less effective and may cause intraocular pressure increase limiting their long-term use. Nepafenac is cost effective, when the burden of PCME prevention is compared with the burden of treatment. Prevention is much cheaper and less harmful than invasive treatments like periocular or intravitreal injections. Overall, both nepafenac 0.1% and nepafenac 0.3% are well tolerated. They should be used carefully in patients with compromised corneas such as those with severe dry eye or penetrating grafts. If otherwise healthy cataract patients have ≥2 risk factors, like PCME in the other eye or posterior capsule rupture during surgery, treatment should be considered. Once-daily nepafenac 0.3% dosing may improve postoperative outcomes through increased patient compliance and may reduce treatment burden further. Every patient should be assessed in terms of risks/benefits of the treatment, in individual basis, before cataract surgery.