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Review On Preclinical And Clinical Evidence Of Food (Beverages, Fruits And Vegetables) And Drug Interactions: Mechanism And Safety

Yogesh C. Yadav, Kamla Pathak, Devender Pathak

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Background:The therapeutic potency and efficacy of drugs can be affected by a patient’s dietary habit. The food composition and their nutritional value interact with drugs that lead to alteration of the therapeutic response of drugs in patients.Objective:This present review is an attempt to illustrate clinical reports of food-drug interaction. Further, it also highlights specific interaction mechanism(s) and the safety thereof.Methods:Through the search engine “Scopus”; literature on recent advances in food and drug interactions includes almost all therapeutic categories such as antimicrobials, antiviral, antifungal, antihistamines, anticoagulants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and drugs acting on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system.Results:Preclinical and clinical studies that have been conducted by various researchers affirm significant drug-food interactions across the various therapeutic categories of drugs. Preclinical studies have documented the effects of food, milk products, alcohols, fruit and vegetables on the drug absorption, metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. The clinical studies on fruits/vegetables and drugs interactions report significant alteration in therapeutic response.Conclusion:Based on the preclinical and clinical reports, it can be concluded that the interaction of food with drug(s) significantly alters their therapeutic potential. The inputs from clinical practitioners to elucidate potential risk of food-drug interaction need to be intensified in order to prevent adverse clinical consequences.