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Direct Regulatory Effect Of Fatty Acids On Macrophage Lipoprotein Lipase: Potential Role Of PPARs.

S. E. Michaud, G. Renier
Published 2001 · Biology, Medicine

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Atherosclerosis is a major complication of type 2 diabetes. The pathogenesis of this complication is poorly understood, but it clearly involves production in the vascular wall of macrophage (Mo) lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Mo LPL is increased in human diabetes. Peripheral factors dysregulated in diabetes, including glucose and free fatty acids (FAs), may contribute to this alteration. We previously reported that high glucose stimulates LPL production in both J774 murine and human Mo. In the present study, we evaluated the direct effect of FAs on murine Mo LPL expression and examined the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in this effect. J774 Mo were cultured for 24 h with 0.2 mmol/l unsaturated FAs (arachidonic [AA], eicosapentaenoic [EPA], and linoleic acids [LA]) and monounsaturated (oleic acid [OA]) and saturated FAs (palmitic acid [PA] and stearic acid [SA]) bound to 2% bovine serum albumin. At the end of this incubation period, Mo LPL mRNA expression, immunoreactive mass, activity, and synthetic rate were measured. Incubation of J774 cells with LA, PA, and SA significantly increased Mo LPL mRNA expression. In contrast, exposure of these cells to AA and EPA dramatically decreased this parameter. All FAs, with the exception of EPA and OA, increased extra- and intracellular LPL immunoreactive mass and activity. Intracellular LPL mass and activity paralleled extracellular LPL mass and activity in all FA-treated cells. In Mo exposed to AA, LA, and PA, an increase in Mo LPL synthetic rate was observed. To evaluate the role of PPARs in the modulatory effect of FAs on Mo LPL gene expression, DNA binding assays were performed. Results of these experiments demonstrate an enhanced binding of nuclear proteins extracted from all FA-treated Mo to the peroxisome proliferator-response element (PPRE) consensus sequence of the LPL promoter. PA-, SA-, and OA-stimulated binding activity was effectively diminished by immunoprecipitation of the nuclear proteins with anti-PPAR-alpha antibodies. In contrast, anti-PPAR-gamma antibodies only significantly decreased AA-induced binding activity. Overall, these results provide the first evidence for a direct regulatory effect of FAs on Mo LPL and suggest a potential role of PPARs in the regulation of Mo LPL gene expression by FAs.
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