Characteristics Of Executive Functions In Patients With Cognitive Impairments In The Presence Of Depressive Disorders
Introduction. The urgency of the problem of affective pathology and, above all, depression, due to a number of factors: the growing prevalence of depression, reaching 10.0 % in the population, the high risk of chronic such conditions, their maladaptive impact on social functioning, efficiency and quality of life, the burden of economic costs etc. According to epidemiological indicators in Ukraine over the past 10 years, the incidence of affective disorders has increased by 6.13 %, and the prevalence – by 13.16 %. Impaired thinking and executive functions, decreased concentration and difficulty making decisions are key diagnostic signs of depression. Cognitive impairment (CI) has a cumulative effect on the functionality of patients with depression and is associated with a longer duration of depressive episodes, which indicates the need for its diagnosis and treatment. At the present stage, there are no systematic ideas about the specifics of disorders of executive functions in the presence of different types of depressive disorders (DD), which determines the relevance of the study in this direction. The aim of the study. Describe the executive functions in patients with CI in the presence of DD. Materials and methods. The study included 362 patients with CI in the presence of DD, which were stratified into three groups of comparisons by the mechanism of DD: 123 patients with recurrent depressive disorders (RDD), 141 patients with bipolar affective disorder (BAD) and 98 people with prolonged depressive reaction (PDR). The predominant numbers (38.12 %) of patients with CI in the presence of DD were in adulthood (30-44 years). There were more young people (18-29 years) among patients with PDR (21.43 %, DC = 8.19) and among patients with BAD (31.21 %, DC = 9.82), and middle-aged people (45-59 years) (37.40 %, DC = 1.54) and the elderly (60-74 years) (17.07 %, DC = 4.78) – among patients with RDD. A set of research methods was used: clinical-psychopathological, psychodiagnostic and statistical. Results. Peculiarities of executive functions in patients with CI in the presence of DD were established: the moderate and severe disorders of visual-motor coordination (39.84 % and 19.51 %, respectively) and impaired visual-spatial functions (13.72 %), moderate and severe violations of executive functions (54.47 % and 13.01 %, respectively), moderate, severe and weak violations of the executive function of the lexical system (39.84 %, 32.52 % and 23.58 %, respectively) were present in patients with RDD; the moderate violations of verbal performance (58.54 %); moderate and severe violations of visual-motor coordination (41.13 % and 26.24 %, respectively), executive functions (65.96 % и 21.38 %, respectively), executive functions of the lexical system (47.52 % и 39,01 %, respectively) and verbal productivity (58.16 % and 21.28 % respectively) were found in BAD; absence and weak impairments of visual-motor coordination (45.92 % and 36.73 %, respectively), executive functions (23.47 % and 66.33 %, respectively), executive functions of the lexical system (31.63 % and 45.92 %, respectively) and verbal productivity (26.53 % and 58.16 %, respectively) were presented in patients with PDR. Conclusions. The study revealed the features of executive functions in patients with cognitive impairment in the presence of depressive disorders, which should be taken into account in the algorithm of their psychosocial rehabilitation.