Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Discriminatory Effectiveness Of Crown Indexes—Tests Between American Blacks And Whites

Candice L. Foster, E. Harris
Published 2018 · Psychology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Tooth crown shapes differ among human groups because the sizes and shapes of the constituent crown components differ. It was of interest to us whether there is patterned variation in crown indexes between sexes or among ethnic groups. The crown index—buccolingual width as a function of mesiodistal length—was analyzed here in terms of sex and race differences in a cohort of American black and white adolescents (n = 324) from the U.S. Mid-South. The mandibular canine is distinctive in exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism in crown shape, with females being broader in terms of mesiodistal length. Prior literature reports the crown indexes of several tooth types to be dimorphic, which does not occur here, showing that the extent of sexual dimorphism differs among groups. In contrast, we found that multiple crown indexes differ significantly between the samples of blacks and whites, with the largest differences in UC, UP1, and LM2. Of note, nature of the differences are tooth-specific, suggesting that divergence among groups at this microevolutionary level has shifted crown shapes along distinctive (rather than parallel) pathways. The optimum subset of crown indexes correctly allocates 67% of the specimens as to race; this percentage is not much better than chance, suggesting that crown indexes are of little forensic usefulness in discriminating among contemporary humans. Dental Anthropology 2009;22(3):85-92. osteologists, and craniometrists that emphasize shape rather than size differences (e.g., Wilder, 1920; Martin, 1928), though Albrecht et al. (1993) provide some cautionary notes against the uncritical use of ratios. The crown index (BL/MD times 100) has long been used as a measure of crown shape. Selma Thomsen (1955, p 4) states that, “This index was introduced by Retzius, a Swedish anatomist,” but she does not supply a citation. Anders Retzius (b. 1796 – d. 1860) is better known in dental circles as the person who described histological features of the enamel: “In ground section the enamel is marked by brown bands called the bands, striae, or incremental lines of Retzius” (Bhaskar, 1962, p 103). Application of the crown index evidently caught on quickly; de Terra reports it (Zahnbogenindex) without explanation (de Terra, 1905). The crown index expresses crown width (BL) as a function of length (MD), so a large index reflects a broad-short crown form, while a small index indicates a narrow-long form. The index is only an approximate measure of shape because tooth crowns are not essentially rectangular in form. The purpose of the present study is to explore the utility of using crown indexes of the permanent teeth to distinguish between males and females and, secondly, Correspondence to: Edward F. Harris, Department of Orthodontics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN 38163. E-mail: eharris@utmem.edu
This paper references
10.1111/j.1741-2358.1990.tb00257.x
Age-progressive changes in pulp widths and root lengths during adulthood: a study of American blacks and whites.
M. A. Woods (1990)
10.1016/S0070-2153(07)81012-X
Tooth morphogenesis in vivo, in vitro, and in silico.
I. Salazar-Ciudad (2008)
10.1002/ajpa.20878
Dental crown size and sex hormone concentrations: another look at the development of sexual dimorphism.
D. Guatelli-Steinberg (2008)
10.1002/AJPA.20080
Metric dental variation of major human populations.
T. Hanihara (2005)
Scoring procedures for key morphological traits of the permanent dentition : The Arizona State University dental anthropology system
CG TurnerII (1991)
10.1016/0003-9969(67)90093-3
Relative growth within the human first upper permanent molar during the prenatal period.
P. M. Butler (1967)
10.25100/RE.V15I3.5665
Racial diferences in tooth crown size gradients within morphogenetic fields
Edward F Harrys (2017)
10.1002/AJPA.10430
Alternative dental measurements: proposals and relationships with other measurements.
S. Hillson (2005)
Sexual dimorphism in enamel thickness in the human mandibular canine
DH Morris (1989)
10.1016/0003-9969(68)90018-6
The relationship between Carabelli's trait and the size, number and morphology of the maxillary molars.
H. Keene (1968)
10.1002/ajpa.1330230303
The teeth of the Indians of Pecos Pueblo
Carl T. Nelson (1938)
10.1007/978-94-009-6357-3_12
Some Aspects of Allocation and Discrimination
N. Campbell (1984)
On sexual differences in the teeth of the Javanese
Moorrees CFA (1931)
10.1002/ajpa.1330370108
A multivariate dental sexing technique.
L. E. Ditch (1972)
10.1073/pnas.132069499
A gene network model accounting for development and evolution of mammalian teeth
I. Salazar-Ciudad (2002)
10.1177/00220345640430022401
Sex Difference in Tooth Size
S. Garn (1964)
10.1002/ajpa.1330480116
Crown size and hypodontia in the permanent dentition of moderl Skolt Lapps.
P. Kirveskari (1978)
10.1002/ajpa.1330060408
Variation in the dimensions of lower molars in man and anthropoid apes
Aleš Hardlička (1923)
10.1016/S0003-9969(98)00061-2
A radiographic assessment of enamel thickness in human maxillary incisors.
E. Harris (1998)
Racial traits in the human dentition
R Martin (1957)
10.1177/00220345670460055801
Genetic Control of Sexual Dimorphism in Tooth Size
S. Garn (1967)
10.1177/00220345670460065401
Sex Difference in Tooth Shape
S. Garn (1967)
10.1002/AJPA.20271
Associations between Carabelli trait and cusp areas in human permanent maxillary first molars.
S. Kondo (2006)
Variation in tooth position : a metric study of variation and adaptation in the deciduous and permanent dentitions
C Seipel (1946)
10.1002/ajpa.1330460305
Analysis of developmental processes possibly related to human dental sexual dimorphism in permanent and deciduous canines.
M. Moss (1977)
10.1387/ijdb.7848830
Evidence for the role of the enamel knot as a control center in mammalian tooth cusp formation: non-dividing cells express growth stimulating Fgf-4 gene.
J. Jernvall (1994)
An odontometrical study on the Norwegian Lapps
R. SELMER-OLSEN (1949)
10.1259/dmfr.23.3.7835519
Sexual dimorphism in mesiodistal dentin and enamel thickness.
J. Stroud (1994)
10.1080/03014469000001292
Measurement error in human dental mensuration.
J. Kieser (1990)
Transducer caliper with readout capability for odontometry.
StanleyM. Garn (1967)
10.1043/0003-3219(1998)068<0141:ETOTPD>2.3.CO;2
Enamel thickness of the posterior dentition: its implications for nonextraction treatment.
J. Stroud (1998)
Les caracteres simians de la mâchoire de la Naulette
P Topinard (1886)
10.1111/j.1525-142X.2004.04002.x
How different types of pattern formation mechanisms affect the evolution of form and development
I. Salazar-Ciudad (2004)
Ethnic differences in the apportionment of tooth sizes
MA Kelley (1991)
10.1016/B978-0-08-009823-4.50012-4
DENTAL MEASUREMENT: AN ASSESSMENT OF ITS VALUE IN ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDIES
D. H. Goose (1963)
10.1002/ajpa.1330910404
Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.
G. H. Albrecht (1993)
[Dental morphology].
T. Ozaki (1986)
Genetics of tooth development
SM Garn (1977)
10.1177/00220345720510030501
Univariate Versus Multivariate Differences in Tooth Size According to Sex
Rosario H. Yap Potter (1972)
10.1043/0003-3219(1970)040<0051:TGATPO>2.0.CO;2
The gradient and the pattern of crown-size reduction in simple hypodontia.
S. Garn (1970)
10.1177/00220345660450064301
Sexual Dimorphism in the Buccolingual Tooth Diameter
S. Garn (1966)
10.1101/SQB.1997.062.01.032
The enamel knot: a putative signaling center regulating tooth development.
I. Thesleff (1997)
10.1002/ajpa.1330790309
Allocation and discrimination based on human odontometric data.
J. Kieser (1989)
10.1016/0003-9969(79)90026-8
Molar cusp-size variability in relation to odontogenesis in hominoid primates.
R. Corruccini (1979)
10.1177/00220345670460066501
Shape Similarities Throughout the Dentition
S. Garn (1967)



Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar