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Evidence Of Self-recruitment In Demersal Marine Populations

S. Swearer, J. Shima, M. Hellberg, S. Thorrold, Geoffrey P. Jones, D. R. Robertson, S. Morgan, K. Selkoe, G. Ruiz, R. R. Warner
Published 2002 · Biology

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The majority of shallow-water marine species have a two-phase life cycle in which relatively sedentary, demersal adults produce pelagic larvae. Because these larval stages are potentially subject to dispersal by ocean currents, it has been widely accepted that local populations are open, with recruitment resulting from the arrival of larvae from non-local sources. However, a growing number of studies indicate that larvae are capable of recruiting back to their source population. Here, we review the evidence for selfrecruitment in demersal marine populations, drawing from studies of endemism, introduced species, population genetics, stock-recruitment relationships, larval distributions, populations at the limit of a species’ range, and applications of environmental and chemical markers. These studies indicate that self-recruitment can and does occur across species representative of most life history traits and geographical localities. Thus, the ability of larvae to recruit back to their natal population may be a pervasive phenomenon among marine species. The mounting evidence in support of self-recruitment dynamics indicates a pressing need for a reevaluation of the appropriateness of demographically-open population models and their applicability to the management and conservation of marine ecosystems. Until the early 20th century, marine systems were considered analogous to many terrestrial systems that consist of groups of demographically-closed or self-recruiting populations in which reproduction by local adults gives rise to the next generation. For many pelagic fisheries, it was believed that fluctuations in abundance were caused by adult migration, with poor fishing years a result of few fish returning to the usual fishing grounds. Hjort (1914) marked the beginning of a paradigm shift away from the migration theory to the view that fluctuations in adult abundance might be caused by variable recruitment (Sinclair, 1997). This shift in focus towards the early life history stages highlighted important differences in the life cycles of terrestrial and marine fauna. The majority of shallow-water marine taxa have a bipartite life cycle in which relatively sedentary, demersal adult stages produce larvae that develop in the pelagic environment before recruiting to the benthos. Because many pelagic larval stages are too small to contend with ocean currents, Thorson (1950) proposed that recruitment variability was primarily determined by larval mortality resulting from advection away from suitable settlement sites. If pelagic larvae are subject to transport by ocean currents away from the parental population, local marine populations should be demographically open with local recruitment resulting from the transport of larvae from non-local sources. Since the 1950’s, the demographically open population model has gained wide acceptance (e.g., Roughgarden et al., 1985; Sale, 1991; see Caley et al., 1996 for a review).
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