Invited Review: Body Condition Score And Its Association With Dairy Cow Productivity, Health, And Welfare.
J. Roche, N. Friggens, J. Kay, M. W. Fisher, K. Stafford, D. Berry
Published 2009 · Biology, Medicine
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
The body condition score (BCS) of a dairy cow is an assessment of the proportion of body fat that it possesses, and it is recognized by animal scientists and producers as being an important factor in dairy cattle management. The scale used to measure BCS differs between countries, but low values always reflect emaciation and high values equate to obesity. The intercalving profile of BCS is a mirror image of the milk lactation profile. Cows lose condition for 50 to 100 d postcalving, because of homeorhetic changes that occur in the somatotropic axis and the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, and the upregulation of lipolytic pathways in adipose tissue. Management and feeding have little effect on early postcalving BCS loss (wk 1 to 4 postcalving) until the natural period of insulin resistance has passed and the somatotropic axis has recoupled. There is evidence, however, that management and diet can influence the timing of recoupling of the somatotropic axis and the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, and gene expression differences in adipose tissue 30 d in milk confirm an effect of energy intake on lipogenic enzymes. The BCS in which a cow calves, nadir BCS, and the amount of BCS she loses postcalving are associated with milk production, reproduction, and health. Body condition score may also be a valid indicator of animal welfare, but further research is required to determine the effect of BCS and BCS change on how a cow "feels." Although the actual strength of the association may vary, there is relative consistency in the associations among calving and nadir BCS, and BCS change on milk production, postpartum anestrous, the likelihood of a successful pregnancy and days open, the risk of uterine infection, and the risk of metabolic disorders. For many production and health variables, the association with BCS is nonlinear, with an optimum calving BCS of 3.0 to 3.25 (5-point scale); lower calving BCS is associated with reduced production and reproduction, whereas calving BCS >/=3.5 (5-point scale) is associated with a reduction in early lactation dry matter intake and milk production and an increased risk of metabolic disorders. Ongoing research into the automation of body condition scoring suggests that it is a likely candidate to be incorporated into decision support systems in the near future to aid producers in making operational and tactical decisions.
This paper references
Comparison of growth hormone-releasing factor and somatotropin: lipid and glucose metabolism in dairy cows.
J. Liesman (1995)
Facultative adjustment of mammalian sex ratios in support of the Trivers–Willard hypothesis: evidence for a mechanism
E. Cameron (2004)
Effects of body condition score and score change on the reproductive performance of dairy cows: a meta-analysis.
F. López-Gatius (2003)
Associations among body condition score, body weight, and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving dairy cattle.
J. Roche (2007)
Reproduction, mastitis, and body condition of seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows in confinement or pasture systems.
S. P. Washburn (2002)
The role of depot fat in the hypothalamic control of food intake in the rat
G. C. Kennedy (1953)
Interrelationships of parturition problems, production of subsequent lactation, reproduction, and age at first calving.
J. R. Thompson (1983)
Body lipid reserves and the reproductive cycle: towards a better understanding
N. C. Friggens (2003)
Regulation of organic nutrient metabolism during transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.
A. Bell (1995)
Relationship between body condition scores and conception at first artificial insemination in a large dairy herd of high yielding Holstein cows.
J. J. Domecq (1997)
Risk factors for stillbirth in Holstein heifers under field conditions in France: a prospective survey.
M. Chassagne (1999)
Intermediary metabolism of adipose tissue.
Bauman De (1976)
Birth sex ratios relate to mare condition at conception in Kaimanawa horses
E. Cameron (1999)
Estimation of body weight from body size measurements and body condition scores in dairy cows.
Carsten Enevoldsen (1997)
Phenotypic profiles for body weight, body condition score, energy intake, and energy balance across different parities and concentrate feeding levels
D. Berry (2006)
Genetic aspects of feed intake and efficiency in lactating dairy heifers
J.A.M. van Arendonk (1991)
Ruminant physiology : digestion, metabolism and impact of nutrition on gene expression, immunology and stress
K. Sejrsen (2006)
Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: a review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis.
D. Bauman (1980)
Partition of fat, body composition and body condition score in mature cows
I. A. Wright (1984)
Lactation: A Comprehensive Treatise
B. Larson (1978)
Subclinical ketosis in lactating dairy cattle.
T. Duffield (2000)
Effects of level of feeding of concentrates during early lactation on the yield and composition of milk from grazing dairy cows with varying body condition score at calving
C. Stockdale (2004)
A dynamic model of feed intake regulation in dairy cows. Model description
H. Petruzzi (2004)
Evaluation of classifiers that score linear type traits and body condition score using common sires.
R. Veerkamp (2002)
The influence of body condition at calving and dietary protein supply on voluntary food intake and performance in dairy cows
P. C. Garnsworthy (1987)
Regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity by malonyl-CoA in mitochondria from sheep liver, a tissue with a low capacity for fatty acid synthesis.
N. Brindle (1985)
Developmental programming of health and disease.
S. Langley-Evans (2006)
Decreased concentration of plasma leptin in periparturient dairy cows is caused by negative energy balance.
S. Block (2001)
Heritability and correlations for body condition score and dairy form within and across lactation and age.
C. Dechow (2004)
Influence of negative energy balance on cyclicity and fertility in the high producing dairy cow.
D. Wathes (2007)
The effect of body condition score on blood metabolites and hormonal profiles in ewes
R. M. Caldeira (2007)
Feeding- and management-related diseases in the transition cow
K. L. Ingvartsen (2006)
The Control of Fat and Lean Deposition
K. Boorman (1993)
Weather, herbage quality and milk production in pastoral systems. 2. Temporal patterns and intra-relationships in herbage quality and mineral concentration parameters
John R Roche (2009)
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection: Or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life
Charles. Darwin (1968)
Effect of body condition at calving and level of feeding in early lactation on milk production of dairy cows
C. Grainger (1982)
Estimation of parameters describing lipid metabolism in lactation: challenge of existing knowledge described in a model of metabolism.
J. Mcnamara (2000)
Relationships of body condition score to production variables in high producing Holstein dairy cattle.
S. Waltner (1993)
Undesirable side effects of selection for high production efficiency in farm animals: a review
W. M. Rauw (1998)
Total mixed rations versus pasture diets: Evidence for a genotype x diet on the concentration of amino acid-derived volatiles in milk
Kolver Es (2002)
Feedback regulation of growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone gene expression by GH in rat hypothalamus.
P. Chomczyński (1988)
Fertility in dairy cows: bridging the gaps.
M. Royal (2008)
Body condition score, health, yield and fertility in dairy cows
O. Markusfeld (1997)
Performance and nutrient intake of high producing Holstein cows consuming pasture or a total mixed ration.
E. Kolver (1998)
Insulin resistance in divergent strains of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows offered fresh pasture and increasing amounts of concentrate in early lactation.
L. Chagas (2009)
Growth hormone regulates leptin gene expression in bovine adipose tissue: correlation with adipose IGF-1 expression.
K. Houseknecht (2000)
Periparturient climatic, animal, and management factors influencing the incidence of milk Fever in grazing systems.
J. Roche (2006)
Effect of body condition at calving on the health and performance of dairy cows
R. Treacher (1986)
Duodenal rapeseed oil infusion in early and midlactation cows. 2. Voluntary intake, milk production, and composition.
G. Gagliostro (1991)
Regulation of bovine adipose tissue metabolism during lactation. 4. Dose-responsiveness to epinephrine as altered by stage of lactation.
J. Mcnamara (1988)
Direct analysis of body composition of dairy cows at three physiological stages.
S. Andrew (1994)
Regulation of bovine adipose tissue metabolism during lactation. 1. Lipid synthesis in response to increased milk production and decreased energy intake.
J. Mcnamara (1986)
A Dairy Cow Body Condition Scoring System and Its Relationship to Selected Production Characteristics
E. Wildman (1982)
Genetic effects on stillbirth and calving difficulty in Swedish Holsteins at first and second calving.
L. Steinbock (2003)
Dynamic and static phases of severe dietary obesity in sheep: food intakes, endocrinology and carcass and organ chemical composition.
J. P. McCann (1992)
9 – THE EFFECT OF ENERGY RESERVES AT CALVING ON PERFORMANCE OF DAIRY COWS
P. C. Garnsworthy (1988)
Principal descriptors of body condition score in Holstein cows.
J. Ferguson (1994)
Influence of Holstein-Friesian strain and feed system on body weight and body condition score lactation profiles.
S. McCarthy (2007)
Using mechanistic animal growth models to estimate genetic parameters of biological traits.
A. Doeschl-Wilson (2007)
A Concept of Welfare Based on Feelings
I. Duncan (2008)
Predicting risk of ketosis in dairy cows using in-line measurements of beta-hydroxybutyrate: a biological model.
N. Nielsen (2005)
Effect of hypophysectomy on hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor content and release in the rat.
H. Katakami (1987)
Biosynthesis of milk fat
D. Bauman (1974)
Adipose tissue metabolism and its role in adaptations to undernutrition in ruminants.
Y. Chilliard (2000)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone: synthesis and signaling.
K. Mayo (1995)
You are what your mother eats: evidence for maternal preconception diet influencing foetal sex in humans
F. Mathews (2008)
The somatotrophic axis in young steers: influence of nutritional status and oestradiol-17 beta on hepatic high- and low-affinity somatotrophic binding sites.
B. Breier (1988)
Body condition assessment using digital images.
J. Ferguson (2006)
Within- and across-person uniformity of body condition scoring in Danish Holstein cattle.
E. Kristensen (2006)
Influence of precalving feed allowance on periparturient metabolic and hormonal responses and milk production in grazing dairy cows.
J. Roche (2005)
The composition of milk.
D. T. Davies (1983)
Regulation of Leptin Production
R. Considine (2004)
Intraventricularly injected growth hormone stimulates somatostatin release into rat hypophysial portal blood.
K. Chihara (1981)
Hepatic Regulation of Apolipoprotein B
R. K. Avramoglu (2004)
Body condition at calving and the performance of dairy cows in early lactation under Australian conditions: a review
C. Stockdale (2001)
Regulation of bovine adipose tissue metabolism during lactation. 6. Cellularity and hormone-sensitive lipase activity as affected by genetic merit and energy intake.
T. Smith (1990)
Effect of dietary energy source on energy balance, production, metabolic disorders and reproduction in lactating dairy cattle.
A. V. van Knegsel (2005)
Priming the dairy cow for lactation : A review of dry cow feeding strategies
N. C. Friggens (2004)
Genetic relationships among body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility in dairy cows.
D. Berry (2003)
Genetic parameters for body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility estimated using random regression models.
D. Berry (2003)
Reproduction and survival.
R. C. Brown (1948)
Relationship between body condition score and composition of ninth to eleventh rib tissue in Holstein dairy cows
K. Otto (1991)
Body condition score and live-weight effects on milk production in Irish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.
D. Berry (2007)
Adaptations of Maternal Adipose Tissue to Lactation
R. Vernon (2004)
Relationship between body condition scores and milk yield in a large dairy herd of high yielding Holstein cows.
J. J. Domecq (1997)
The strategy of the genes
C. Waddington (1957)
A novel IKKbeta inhibitor stimulates adiponectin levels and ameliorates obesity-linked insulin resistance.
J. Kamon (2004)
The relationship between body condition score and reproductive performance.
J. Pryce (2001)
Holstein-Friesian strain and feed effects on milk production, body weight, and body condition score profiles in grazing dairy cows.
J. Roche (2006)
Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols.
R. Lehner (1996)
Animal welfare: limping towards Eden.
John Webster (2005)
The effects of maternal nutrition around the time of conception on the health of the offspring.
M. Oliver (2007)
Fetal origins of coronary heart disease
D. Barker (1995)
Growth hormone regulation of p85alpha expression and phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in adipose tissue: mechanism for growth hormone-mediated insulin resistance.
Juan-Pablo del Rincon (2007)
Milk production responses to pre- and postcalving dry matter intake in grazing dairy cows
J. Roche (2007)
The relationship between body energy traits and production and fitness traits in first-lactation dairy cows.
E. Wall (2007)
Body condition related to ketosis and reproductive performance in Norwegian dairy cows.
P. Gillund (2001)
Integration of metabolism and intake regulation: a review focusing on periparturient animals.
K. L. Ingvartsen (2000)
Influenza dei disturbi metabolici sul rendimento riproduttivo nelle bovine da latte 1. Aspetti eziologici e diagnostici
J. Drackley (2009)
Prenatal maternal effects on body condition score, female fertility, and milk yield of dairy cows.
G. Banos (2007)
Birth weight as a predictor of calving ease and perinatal mortality in Holstein cattle.
J. Johanson (2003)
Adaptations of Glucose and Long-Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism in Liver of Dairy Cows during the Periparturient Period
J. Drackley (2001)
Phenotypic trends in incidence of stillbirth for Holsteins in the United States.
C. L. Meyer (2001)
Physiology and Behaviour of Animal Suffering
N. Gregory (2005)
The Well-Being of Farm Animals
G. Benson (2004)
Time-series models on somatic cell score improve detection of mastitis
E. Norberg (2008)
Essential role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in insulin-induced glucose transport and antilipolysis in rat adipocytes. Studies with a selective inhibitor wortmannin.
T. Okada (1994)
Defense of a lowered weight maintenance level by lateral hypothamically lesioned rats: Evidence from a restriction-refeeding regimen
J. S. Mitchel (1977)
Understanding animal welfare
D. Fraser (2008)
Dystocia and stillbirth in cattle — A review of causes, relations and implications
A. Meijering (1984)
Effects of energy balance on follicular development and first ovulation in postpartum dairy cows.
S. W. Beam (1999)
Adjustment of lactation yield for age at calving in relation to level of production
J. Wilmink (1987)
The effect of breed and parity on curves of body condition during lactation estimated using a non-linear function.
N.C. Friggens (2007)
Somatotropic axis components and nutrient partitioning in genetically diverse dairy cows managed under different feed allowances in a pasture system.
M. Lucy (2009)
Ruminant adaptation to negative energy balance. Influences on the etiology of ketosis and fatty liver.
T. Herdt (2000)
Biochemistry of peroxisomes in health and disease
I. Singh (2004)
ADSA Foundation Scholar Award. Biology of dairy cows during the transition period: the final frontier?
J. Drackley (1999)
Insulin increases the abundance of the growth hormone receptor in liver and adipose tissue of periparturient dairy cows.
R. Rhoads (2004)
Regulatory roles of leptin in reproduction and metabolism: a comparative review.
D. Zieba (2005)
Change in body condition score of Holstein cows as affected by parity and mature equivalent milk yield.
L. Gallo (1996)
Effects of tallow in diets based on corn silage or alfalfa silage on digestion and nutrient use by lactating dairy cows.
L. Ruppert (2003)
Leptin expression in ruminants: nutritional and physiological regulations in relation with energy metabolism.
Y. Chilliard (2005)
The developmental origins of health and disease: current theories and epigenetic mechanisms.
K. Sinclair (2007)
A Cox proportional-hazards model with time-dependent covariates to evaluate the relationship between body-condition score and the risks of first insemination and pregnancy in a high-producing dairy herd.
W. Suriyasathaporn (1998)
Science and its fabrication
A. Chalmers (1990)
Animal and Human Health and Welfare: a Comparative Philosophical Analysis
L. Nordenfelt (2006)
On the relationship between lactational performance and health: is it yield or metabolic imbalance that cause production diseases in dairy cattle? A position paper
K. L. Ingvartsen (2003)
On the origin of species by means of natural selection: Or the preservation of the favoured races in the struggle for life.
Charles. Darwin (1860)
Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition
J. T. Abrams (1982)
The effect of level of feeding, genetic merit, body condition score and age on biological parameters of a mammary gland model.
J. Bryant (2007)
Accounting for energy and protein reserve changes in predicting diet-allowable milk production in cattle.
L. Tedeschi (2006)
Lymphocyte functions in overconditioned cows around parturition.
N. Lacetera (2005)
Effect of different feeding strategies on lactation performance of Holstein and Normande dairy cows.
L. Delaby (2009)
Natural Selection of Parental Ability to Vary the Sex Ratio of Offspring
R. Trivers (1973)
Animal welfare, animal rights and agriculture.
B. Rollin (1990)
An Interdisciplinary Review of Body Condition Scoring for Dairy Cattle
J. Bewley (2008)
3 – CONTROL OF LIPOGENESIS AND LIPOLYSIS
R. Vernon (1992)
Regulation of bovine adipose tissue metabolism during lactation. 5. Relationships of lipid synthesis and lipolysis with energy intake and utilization.
J. Mcnamara (1989)
A comparison of different dairy cow breeds on a seasonal grass-based system of milk production. 1. Milk production, live weight, body condition score and DM intake
P. Dillon (2003)
After Dolly--ethical limits to the use of biotechnology on farm animals.
J. Lassen (2006)
Describing the body condition score change between successive calvings: a novel strategy generalizable to diverse cohorts.
J. Roche (2007)
Dynamic and integrative aspects of the regulation of reproduction by metabolic status in male sheep.
D. Blache (2006)
Feed intake relative to stage of lactation for dairy cows consuming total mixed diets with a high or low ratio of concentrate to forage.
N. Friggens (1998)
Extreme sex ratio variation in relation to change in condition around conception
E. Cameron (2007)
Genetic parameters for common health disorders of Holstein cows.
H. A. Uribe (1995)
Developing a systematic strategy incorporating ethical, animal welfare and practical principles to guide the genetic improvement of dairy cattle
M. W. Fisher (2008)
Biochemistry of lactation
T. Mepham (1983)
Extending lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. II: Effect of genetic strain and diet on plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations.
Jane K. Kay (2009)
Effect of insulin and growth hormone on plasma leptin in periparturient dairy cows.
B. Leury (2003)
Body fatness affects feed intake of sheep at a given body weight.
B. Tolkamp (2006)
Genetics of body condition score in New Zealand dairy cows.
J. Pryce (2006)
Aspects of the regulation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver.
B. W. Jesse (1986)
Regulation of bovine adipose tissue metabolism during lactation. 2. Lipolysis response to milk production and energy intake.
J. Mcnamara (1986)
Condition Scoring Made Easy
K. Macdonald (2004)
Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue
Y. Zhang (1994)
Invited review: New perspectives on the roles of nutrition and metabolic priorities in the subfertility of high-producing dairy cows.
L. Chagas (2007)
[Bibliographic review: Quantitative variations and metabolism of lipids in adipose tissue and the liver during the gestation-lactation cycle. 1. In the rat].
Y. Chilliard (1986)
Test-day genetic analysis of condition score and heart girth in Holstein Friesian cows.
L. Gallo (2001)
Ghrelin-leptin tango in body-weight regulation.
D. E. Cummings (2003)
Regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in support of lactation.
J. Mcnamara (1991)
The significance of DNA methylation in cellular aging.
R. Holliday (1985)
Selection indices in Holstein cattle of various countries.
F. Miglior (2005)
Relationships among milk yield, body condition, cow weight, and reproduction in spring-calved Holstein-Friesians.
F. Buckley (2003)
Neuroendocrine and physiological regulation of intake with particular reference to domesticated ruminant animals.
J. Roche (2008)
Estimation of genotype×environment interactions, in a grass-based system, for milk yield, body condition score, and body weight using random regression models
D. Berry (2003)
Performance Indicates Animal State of Being: A Cinderella Axiom?1
S. Curtis (2007)
Investigating the interaction between body condition at calving and pre-calving energy and protein nutrition on the early lactation performance of dairy cows
C. Stockdale (2005)
Evaluation and application of the CPM Dairy Nutrition model
L. Tedeschi (2008)
Weather, herbage quality and milk production in pastoral systems. 4. Effects on dairy cattle production.
John R Roche (2009)
Body condition change ante- and postpartum, health and reproductive performance in German Holstein cows.
M. Hoedemaker (2009)
Energy balance and reproduction on dairy cows fed to achieve low or high milk production on a pasture-based system.
M. Pedernera (2008)
Lipoprotein lipase and the disposition of dietary fatty acids.
B. Fielding (1998)
Effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, reproductive performance, and postpartum ovarian function.
S. Walsh (2008)
Negative influence of high maternal milk production before and after conception on offspring survival and milk production in dairy cattle.
D. Berry (2008)
Impact of age at calving on lactation, reproduction, health, and income in first-parity Holsteins on commercial farms.
J. Ettema (2004)
Effect of Force-Feeding Upon Basal Insulin Levels of Rats
I. Bernstein (1975)
Performance of lactating dairy cows managed on pasture-based or in freestall barn-feeding systems.
R. S. Fontaneli (2005)
Effect of energy density in the diet and milking frequency on plasma metabolites and hormones in early lactation dairy cows.
J. B. Andersen (2004)
Cultural variation, animal welfare and telos
B. Rollin (2007)
A Body Condition Scoring Chart for Holstein Dairy Cows
A. J. Edmonson (1989)
Lipid absorption and transport in ruminants.
D. Bauchart (1993)
Expression of lipolytic genes in the adipose tissue of pregnant and lactating Holstein dairy cattle.
J. M. Sumner (2007)
Staying good while playing god--the ethics of breeding farm animals.
P. Sandøe (1999)
Modelling the reproductive efficiency in a beef cow herd: effect of calving date, bull exposure and body condition at calving on the calving–conception interval and calving distribution
F. Blanc (2008)
Effect of prepartum and postpartum dietary energy on growth and lactation of primiparous cows.
R. Grummer (1995)
Genetic parameters for level and change of body condition score and body weight in dairy cows.
D. Berry (2002)
Relationships between energy balance and health traits of dairy cattle in early lactation.
B. Collard (2000)
Growth hormone inhibits its own secretion by acting on the hypothalamus through its receptors on neuropeptide Y neurons in the arcuate nucleus and somatostatin neurons in the periventricular nucleus.
S. Minami (1998)
Animal selection and breeding techniques that create diseased populations and compromise welfare.
Ott Rs (1996)
Regulation of nutrient partitioning during lactation: homeostasis and homeorhesis revisited.
D. Bauman (2000)
Validation of indirect measures of body fat in lactating cows.
S. Waltner (1994)
Body condition scores of Holstein cows on Prince Edward Island, Canada: relationships with yield, reproductive performance, and disease.
P. Ruegg (1995)
Lactation and gestation in dairy cows: flexibility avoids nutritional extremes.
C. Knight (2001)
A comparison of different dairy cow breeds on a seasonal grass-based system of milk production: 2. Reproduction and survival
P. Dillon (2003)
Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation.
B. W. Jesse (1986)
Evaluation of net energy expenditures of dairy cows according to body weight changes over a full lactation.
J. Ellis (2006)
Genotype and diet effects on energy balance in the first three lactations of dairy cows.
M. Coffey (2004)
Effects of nutrition and metabolic status on circulating hormones and ovarian follicle development in cattle.
M. Diskin (2003)
Heritability and correlations among body condition score loss, body condition score, production and reproductive performance.
C. Dechow (2002)
Heritabilities and correlations among body condition scores, production traits, and reproductive performance.
C. Dechow (2001)
Comparison of growth curves of three strains of female dairy cattle
D. Berry (2005)
Interrelationships between energy balance and postpartum reproductive function in dairy cattle.
W. R. Butler (1989)
Inter-relationships of periparturient diseases in dairy cows
E. Peeler (1994)
Epidemiological study of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.
P. Oltenacu (1994)
Changes in body components of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows over the first 29 weeks of lactation
M. Gibb (1992)
The effect of body condition of dairy cows at calving on their food intake and performance when given complete diets
P. C. Garnsworthy (1982)
Understanding the Dairy Cow
J. Webster (1987)
The effect of hypophysectomy and growth hormone administration on pre-prosomatostatin messenger ribonucleic acid in the periventricular nucleus of the rat hypothalamus.
K. V. Rogers (1988)
Body condition score and body weight effects on dystocia and stillbirths and consequent effects on postcalving performance.
D. Berry (2007)
Prediction of the reproductive status of cattle on the basis of milk progesterone measures: model description.
N. Friggens (2005)
Hormone-sensitive lipase--new roles for an old enzyme.
S. J. Yeaman (2004)
The effect of breed, parity and body fatness on the lipolytic response of dairy cows
P. Theilgaard (2002)
Research, improvement and application of mechanistic, biochemical, dynamic models of metabolism in lactating dairy cattle
J. Mcnamara (2004)
Growth hormone (GH) binding and expression of GH receptor 1A mRNA in hepatic tissue of periparturient dairy cows.
R. Radcliff (2003)
Pre-conception energy balance and secondary sex ratio--partial support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis in dairy cows.
J. Roche (2006)
Association between body condition score and live weight in pasture-based Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.
D. Berry (2006)
Energy balance profiles for the first three lactations of dairy cows estimated using random regression.
M. Coffey (2002)
Changes in the Somatotrophic Axis Associated with the Initiation of Lactation
M. C. Lucy (2001)
Effects of feeding magnesium sulfate to dry pregnant dairy cows with different body condition scores on intake in late gestation, periparturient blood calcium concentrations and production in early lactation
C. Stockdale (2004)
Relationships among international body condition scoring systems.
J. Roche (2004)
Postpartum body condition score and results from the first test day milk as predictors of disease, fertility, yield, and culling in commercial dairy herds.
C. Heuer (1999)
Properties of random regression models using linear splines.
I. Misztal (2006)
Body score of dairy cows.
W. H. Broster (1998)
Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Human Nutrition
M. Stipanuk (2000)
Potential for estimation of body condition scores in dairy cattle from digital images.
J. Bewley (2008)
Effect of the amount of body condition loss from the dry to near calving periods on the subsequent body condition change, occurrence of postpartum diseases, metabolic parameters and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows.
Ill-Hwa Kim (2003)
Molecular Biology of Aging
F.Brad Johnson (1999)
Breed and parity effects on energy balance profiles through lactation: evidence of genetically driven body energy change.
N. Friggens (2007)
A comparison of three strains of holstein-friesian grazed on pasture and managed under different feed allowances.
K. A. Macdonald (2008)
The mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase system. From concept to molecular analysis.
J. D. McGarry (1997)
Prediction of body lipid change in pregnancy and lactation.
N. Friggens (2004)
Genetic analysis of body condition score of lactating Dutch Holstein and Red-and-White heifers.
E. Koenen (2001)
Relationships among body condition score, milk constituents, and postpartum luteal function in Norwegian dairy cows.
O. Reksen (2002)
Genetic relationships between calving interval and body condition score conditional on milk yield.
J. Pryce (2002)
Relationship of changes in condition score to cow health in Holsteins.
M. Gearhart (1990)
The strategy of the genes : a discussion of some aspects of theoretical biology
C. Waddington (1957)
Adaptations of Glucose Metabolism During Pregnancy and Lactation
A. Bell (2004)
A phenotypic and genetic analysis of energy balance in dairy cows
Michael Coffey (2003)
Relationship between overfeeding, metritis and ketosis in high yielding dairy cows
O. Markusfeld (1985)
Defining animal welfare — does consistency matter?
M. Fisher (2009)
Body condition score in dairy cows: targets for production and fertility
P. Garnsworthy (2007)
Relationships among body condition score, body weight, and milk production variables in pasture-based dairy cows.
J. Roche (2007)
Associations among body condition score, body weight, somatic cell count, and clinical mastitis in seasonally calving dairy cattle.
D. Berry (2007)
Biology of somatotropin in growth and lactation of domestic animals.
T. Etherton (1998)
This paper is referenced by
Hormones, metabolites, and reproduction in Holsteins, Jerseys, and their crosses.
Kasi L. Brown (2012)
Metabolismo energético, resistência a insulina e produção de leite durante o periparto de vacas leiteiras com diferentes concentrações de bPL
Marina Menoncin Weschenfelder (2013)
Dairy cow fertility
Carel Muller (2014)
Plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids response to epinephrine challenges in dairy cows during a 670-d lactation.
L. Marett (2018)
Effect of Bovamine® on Ruminal, Post-Ruminal, and Total Tract Digestibilities in Dairy Cows and on Animal Performance
Catherine Eileen Dickey (2016)
Effects of non-genetic factors on beef production in a communal system in Botswana
Anna Nelago Shaanika (2019)
Эффективность применения кормовой добавки Профорт коровам в период раздоя
Антон Васильевич Филатов (2019)
Body Condition | Effects on Health, Milk Production, and Reproduction
John P. Mcnamara (2011)
Managing the grazing dairy cow through the transition period: A review
Jenny Kay (2015)
Short communication: An observational study investigating inter-observer agreement for variation over time of body condition score in dairy cows.
P-A Morin (2017)
Postpartal Subclinical Endometritis Alters Transcriptome Profiles in Liver and Adipose Tissue of Dairy Cows
Haji Akbar (2014)
Estado reproductivo de las ganaderías de vacuno lechero en el Principado de Asturias
Fernando Vicente (2017)
Physiological and health factors affecting fertility in beef and dairy cows
Non-genetic factors affecting milk yield, composition and somatic cell count in Hungarian Holstein cows.
E. Jónás (2016)
Condition score at calving did not affect adaptive immune responses in early lactation
J. E. McGowan (2014)
Inflammation- and lipid metabolism-related gene network expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.
P. Ji (2014)
Lactation and Its Hormonal Control
S. Anderson (2015)
Temporal changes in sphingolipids and systemic insulin sensitivity during the transition from gestation to lactation
J. Rico (2017)
Analyses of genetic relationships between linear type traits, fat-to-protein ratio, milk production traits, and somatic cell count in first-parity Czech Holstein cows.
V. Zink (2018)
Improving winter feeding outcomes in South Island dairy herds
AgResearch Invermay (2010)
On-farm udder health monitoring.
T. Lam (2011)
Selected metabolic and hormonal profiles during maintenance of spontaneous ovarian cysts in dairy cows.
Monica Probo (2011)
Integrating Fasciolosis Control in the Dry Cow Management: The Effect of Closantel Treatment on Milk Production
J Charlier (2012)
Body condition score and milk fatty acid composition in early lactation of Czech Fleckvieh cows
Jaromír Ducháček (2013)
Estimation of backfat thickness using extracted traits from an automatic 3D optical system in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows
A. Weber (2014)
Dairy Cattle Nutrient Sufficiency Kept under Traditional Farming Practice During Rainy and Drought Seasons
Despal Despal (2014)
Supplementation of herbal plants differently modulated metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress in transition dairy cows fed various extruded oil seeds.
F. Hashemzadeh-Cigari (2015)
Heart rate and heart rate variability in pregnant dairy cows and their fetuses determined by fetomaternal electrocardiography.
Lisa Trenk (2015)
A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.
M W Little (2016)
Counts of bovine monocyte subsets prior to calving are predictive for postpartum occurrence of mastitis and metritis
B. Pomeroy (2017)
Feeding management, production and performance of 13 pasture-based dairy farms in a Mediterranean environment
Ruairi P McDonnell (2017)
Genetic control of reproduction in dairy cows under grazing conditions
Stephen T. Butler (2018)See more