Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Symposium Review: The Importance Of The Ruminal Epithelial Barrier For A Healthy And Productive Cow.

Jörg R Aschenbach, Qendrim Zebeli, Amlan Kumar Patra, Gabriele Greco, Salah Amasheh, Gregory B. Penner
Published 2019 · Biology, Medicine
Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The stratified squamous ruminal epithelium is the main site for absorption of key nutrients (e.g., short-chain fatty acids; SCFA) and electrolytes (e.g., sodium and magnesium). The absorptive function has to be highly selective to prevent simultaneous entry of microbes and toxins from the rumen into the blood. As such, epithelial absorption is primarily transcellular, whereas the paracellular pathway appears rather tightly sealed. A network of tight junction (claudin-1, claudin-4, and occludin) and tight junction-associated proteins (e.g., zonula occludens) accomplishes the latter. When microbial fermentation activity is high such as with highly fermentable diets, rumen epithelial functions are often challenged by acidity, high osmolarity, toxins (e.g., endotoxin and histamine), and immune mediators (inflammatory mediators and cytokines) released during local and systemic inflammation. Epithelial damage by low pH in combination with high luminal SCFA concentrations is not immediately reversible and may initially aggravate upon return to physiological pH. In contrast, barrier opening upon hyperosmolarity is acutely transient. The initial insults set by luminal acidity and SCFA and the increasing concentrations of microbial-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharides are key factors that trigger inflammation not only in the rumen but also in the hindgut (cecum and colon), which reach out to the liver and other organs, causing systemic inflammation. Low feed intake during parturition, transportation, heat stress, or disease is the second most relevant challenge for the ruminal epithelial barrier. The barrier opening is usually only transient and quickly restored upon refeeding. Due to a rapid, dose-dependent, and prolonged decrease in absorption capacity for SCFA, however, any feed restriction increases the odds for postrestriction subacute ruminal acidosis. Inflammation due to acidosis can be alleviated by supplemental thiamine, yeasts, and plant bioactive (phytogenic) compounds. Butyrate is used in weaning calves to support ruminal barrier development; however, excess butyrate may promote hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, and epithelial injury in the fully developed rumen of adult cows. Further research is needed to enhance the understanding of the various factors that counteract barrier impairment and help barrier restoration during acidogenic feeding, especially when concurring with unavoidable periods of feed restriction.
This paper references
10.1152/ajpgi.00304.2010
Identification of differentially expressed proteins in ruminal epithelium in response to a concentrate-supplemented diet.
Angelika Bondzio (2011)
10.3945/jn.109.108233
Daily injection of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} increases hepatic triglycerides and alters transcript abundance of metabolic genes in lactating dairy cattle.
Barry J. Bradford (2009)
10.1186/s12917-017-1264-4
Comparative assessment of probiotics and monensin in the prophylaxis of acute ruminal lactic acidosis in sheep
L. F. Reis (2018)
[Studies on the etiology of rumen acidosis in ruminants].
Béla Juhász (1968)
10.1111/j.1439-0442.1998.tb00843.x
Histamine affects growth of sheep ruminal epithelial cells kept in primary culture.
Jörg R Aschenbach (1998)
10.2527/jas.2011-4315
Supplemental butyrate does not enhance the absorptive or barrier functions of the isolated ovine ruminal epithelia.
D. J. Wilson (2012)
10.1016/S0022-5320(73)80037-1
Langerhans cells in the ruminal epithelium of the sheep.
R. Gemmell (1973)
10.1292/jvms.16-0211
Effects of a bacterial probiotic on ruminal pH and volatile fatty acids during subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in cattle
Hiroko Goto (2016)
10.2527/jas.2011-4796
Relationships between transport conditions and welfare outcomes during commercial long haul transport of cattle in North America.
Lai Arrieta González (2012)
10.3945/jn.109.108506
Epithelial capacity for apical uptake of short chain fatty acids is a key determinant for intraruminal pH and the susceptibility to subacute ruminal acidosis in sheep.
Gregory B. Penner (2009)
10.3168/jds.2017-13191
Invited review: Practical feeding management recommendations to mitigate the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle.
Elke Humer (2018)
10.1155/2014/702572
Ruminal Acidosis in Feedlot: From Aetiology to Prevention
J. Hernández (2014)
10.1186/1751-0147-53-48
Diet-induced bacterial immunogens in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows: Impacts on immunity and metabolism
Guozhong Dong (2011)
10.3168/jds.2012-6187
Feeding barley grain-rich diets altered electrophysiological properties and permeability of the ruminal wall in a goat model.
Fenja Klevenhusen (2013)
10.2527/jas.2012-6223
Feed restriction reduces short-chain fatty acid absorption across the reticulorumen of beef cattle independent of diet.
Rodrigo I. Albornoz (2013)
10.3389/fmicb.2017.00138
Feeding a High Concentration Diet Induces Unhealthy Alterations in the Composition and Metabolism of Ruminal Microbiota and Host Response in a Goat Model
Canfeng Hua (2017)
10.3168/jds.2015-10351
Development and physiology of the rumen and the lower gut: Targets for improving gut health.
Michael A Steele (2016)
10.1152/ajpregu.00425.2004
Functional organization of the bovine rumen epithelium.
C. Graham (2005)
10.3168/jds.2008-1264
Repeated ruminal acidosis challenges in lactating dairy cows at high and low risk for developing acidosis: ruminal pH.
F. Dohme (2008)
10.1159/000478765
Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response via NF-κB Pathway
Xudong Sun (2017)
10.3168/jds.2017-13729
Silage review: Silage feeding management: Silage characteristics and dairy cow feeding behavior.
Richard J. Grant (2018)
10.3168/jds.2017-12755
Modulation of chewing behavior and reticular pH in nonlactating cows challenged with concentrate-rich diets supplemented with phytogenic compounds and autolyzed yeast.
Iris Kröger (2017)
10.3168/jds.2006-478
Ruminal acidosis in beef cattle: the current microbiological and nutritional outlook.
T. Nagaraja (2007)
10.1016/S0022-5320(71)90005-0
The barrier to diffusion across ruminal epithelium: a study by electron microscopy using horseradish peroxidase, lanthanum, and ferritin.
Ray C. Henrikson (1971)
10.3168/jds.2017-13859
Effects of repeated subacute ruminal acidosis challenges on the adaptation of the rumen bacterial community in Holstein bulls.
Rie Nagata (2018)
10.1002/iub.1347
Claudin clusters as determinants of epithelial barrier function.
Alexander G. Markov (2015)
10.1079/BJN19930041
Absorption of volatile fatty acids from the rumen of lactating dairy cows as influenced by volatile fatty acid concentration, pH and rumen liquid volume.
J. Dijkstra (1993)
10.3168/jds.2016-12262
Key role of short-chain fatty acids in epithelial barrier failure during ruminal acidosis.
Svenja Meissner (2017)
10.1016/j.cvfa.2014.07.007
Calcium and magnesium physiology and nutrition in relation to the prevention of milk fever and tetany (dietary management of macrominerals in preventing disease).
Javier Martín-Tereso (2014)
10.1093/jas/skx049
Effect of ruminal acidosis and short-term low feed intake on indicators of gastrointestinal barrier function in Holstein steers.
Rae-Leigh Amanda Pederzolli (2018)
10.3168/jds.2016-11796
Intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide negatively affects feed intake, chewing, and clinical variables, but some effects are stronger in cows experiencing subacute rumen acidosis.
Suruchi Aditya (2017)
10.15232/PAS.2017-01663
Invited Review: Ruminal microbes, microbial products, and systemic inflammation 1,2
M. García (2017)
10.2527/2000.782464x
Effect and absorption of histamine in sheep rumen: significance of acidotic epithelial damage.
J. Aschenbach (2000)
10.3168/jds.2018-14744
Supplementing phytogenic compounds or autolyzed yeast modulates ruminal biogenic amines and plasma metabolome in dry cows experiencing subacute ruminal acidosis.
Elke Humer (2018)
10.1017/S0954422417000257
Magnesium homeostasis in cattle: absorption and excretion.
Holger Martens (2018)
10.1186/s12917-018-1463-7
Inflammatory mechanism of Rumenitis in dairy cows with subacute ruminal acidosis
Chenxu Zhao (2018)
10.1111/jpn.12296
Stimulating effects of a diet negative in dietary cation-anion difference on calcium absorption from the rumen in sheep.
M R Wilkens (2016)
10.3168/jds.2008-1641
Effects of heat stress and plane of nutrition on lactating Holstein cows: I. Production, metabolism, and aspects of circulating somatotropin.
M. Rhoads (2009)
10.3168/jds.2011-4864
Short communication: grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis is associated with the differential expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in rumen papillae of lactating dairy cattle.
Michael A Steele (2012)
10.1080/10408398.2018.1486284
Modulation of gastrointestinal barrier and nutrient transport function in farm animals by natural plant bioactive compounds – A comprehensive review
Amlan Kumar Patra (2018)
10.2527/jas.2010-3301
Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Role of fermentation acid absorption in the regulation of ruminal pH.
Jörg R Aschenbach (2011)
10.3168/jds.2010-3205
Characterization of glucagon-like peptide 2 pathway member expression in bovine gastrointestinal tract.
Erin E. Connor (2010)
10.3168/jds.2016-11337
Increased feeding frequency increased milk fat yield and may reduce the severity of subacute ruminal acidosis in higher-risk cows.
Kira Macmillan (2017)
10.1189/jlb.0203082
How we detect microbes and respond to them: the Toll-like receptors and their transducers.
B. Beutler (2003)
10.2527/2002.80102740x
Influence of food deprivation on the transport of 3-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucose across the isolated ruminal epithelium of sheep.
Gotthold Gaebel (2002)
10.1113/expphysiol.1994.sp003774
Effects of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein on the rates of absorption of magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium and phosphate ions from the reticulo-rumen of sheep.
Kirti Dua (1994)
10.1152/japplphysiol.01050.2004
Characterization of calves exhibiting a novel inheritable TNF-alpha hyperresponsiveness to endotoxin: associations with increased pathophysiological complications.
Theodore H. Elsasser (2005)
Blood and ruminal fluid profiles in carbohydrate-foundered cattle.
Robert L. Suber (1979)
10.1007/s004240000285
Transport, catabolism and release of histamine in the ruminal epithelium of sheep
Jörg R. Aschenbach (2000)
10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.016
Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows: the physiological causes, incidence and consequences.
J. Plaizier (2008)
10.3168/jds.2011-4421
Invited review: Role of physically effective fiber and estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle.
Q. Zebeli (2012)
10.1071/AN14285
Characterising barrier function among regions of the gastrointestinal tract in Holstein steers
Gregory B. Penner (2014)
10.1139/m78-201
Endotoxic activity of cell-free rumen fluid from cattle fed hay or grain.
T G Nagaraja (1978)
10.1152/ajpregu.00035.2014
Short-term adaptation of the ruminal epithelium involves abrupt changes in sodium and short-chain fatty acid transport.
B. L. Schurmann (2014)
10.1113/expphysiol.2005.032078
Effects of diet and osmotic pressure on Na+ transport and tissue conductance of sheep isolated rumen epithelium.
Ulrike Lodemann (2006)
10.1152/ajpgi.90442.2008
Bicarbonate-dependent and bicarbonate-independent mechanisms contribute to nondiffusive uptake of acetate in the ruminal epithelium of sheep.
J. Aschenbach (2009)
10.3168/jds.2008-1656
Alfalfa pellet-induced subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows increases bacterial endotoxin in the rumen without causing inflammation.
E. Khafipour (2009)
10.1371/journal.pone.0081602
Downregulation of Cellular Protective Factors of Rumen Epithelium in Goats Fed High Energy Diet
Manfred Hollmann (2013)
10.1016/J.ANIFEEDSCI.2011.12.005
Ruminal pH regulation and nutritional consequences of low pH
Jan Kornelius Dijkstra (2012)
10.2527/jas.2008-0939
Empirical prediction of net portal appearance of volatile fatty acids, glucose, and their secondary metabolites (beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate) from dietary characteristics in ruminants: A meta-analysis approach.
C. Loncke (2009)
10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72807-1
Subacute ruminal acidosis induces ruminal lipopolysaccharide endotoxin release and triggers an inflammatory response.
G. Gozho (2005)
10.2527/jas1971.333698x
Ovine lactic acidosis: intraruminal and systemic.
P. Telle (1971)
10.1002/iub.400
Gluconeogenesis in dairy cows: the secret of making sweet milk from sour dough.
J. Aschenbach (2010)
10.3168/jds.2016-11570
Characteristics of dairy cows with a greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis: Volatile fatty acid absorption, rumen digestion, and expression of genes in rumen epithelial cells.
Xuri Gao (2016)
10.3168/jds.2008-1977
Increasing dietary sugar concentration may improve dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, and productivity of dairy cows in the postpartum phase of the transition period.
Gregory B. Penner (2009)
10.1017/S1751731113001705
Repeated acidosis challenges and live yeast supplementation shape rumen microbiota and fermentations and modulate inflammatory status in sheep.
Mathieu Silberberg (2013)
10.2527/jas.2010-3460
Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants.
Tanya F Gressley (2011)
10.3168/jds.2017-13212
Changes in gene expression in the rumen and colon epithelia during the dry period through lactation of dairy cows and effects of live yeast supplementation.
Alex Bach (2018)
10.3168/jds.2010-3406
A single mild episode of subacute ruminal acidosis does not affect ruminal barrier function in the short term.
Gregory B. Penner (2010)
Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves.
Paweł Górka (2009)
10.1093/jas/skx017
Effect of individual SCFA on the epithelial barrier of sheep rumen under physiological and acidotic luminal pH conditions.
Gabriele Greco (2018)
10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00078
The High Costs of Low-Grade Inflammation: Persistent Fatigue as a Consequence of Reduced Cellular-Energy Availability and Non-adaptive Energy Expenditure
Tamara E Lacourt (2018)
10.3168/jds.2017-14086
Invited review: Use of butyrate to promote gastrointestinal tract development in calves.
Paweł Górka (2018)
10.3168/jds.2011-4370
Temporal feed restriction and overstocking increase competition for feed by dairy cattle.
L. K. M. Collings (2011)
10.3168/jds.2016-12001
Glucose requirements of an activated immune system in lactating Holstein cows.
Sara K Kvidera (2017)
10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.08.007
The role of tight junctions in skin barrier function and dermal absorption.
Katja Bäsler (2016)
10.1017/S0007114516001860
Whole-body and splanchnic amino acid metabolism in sheep during an acute endotoxin challenge.
Chris J. McNeil (2016)
10.3168/jds.2014-8757
Serosal-to-mucosal urea flux across the isolated ruminal epithelium is mediated via urea transporter-B and aquaporins when Holstein calves are abruptly changed to a moderately fermentable diet.
M. E. Walpole (2015)
10.2527/jas.2012-6224
Moderate decreases in the forage-to-concentrate ratio before feed restriction and increases thereafter independently improve the recovery from a feed restriction insult in beef cattle.
Rodrigo I. Albornoz (2013)
10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74431-7
Animal and dietary factors affecting feed intake during the prefresh transition period in Holsteins.
A. Hayirli (2002)
10.1046/j.1439-0442.2003.00569.x
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA): a review.
J. Kleen (2003)
10.3168/jds.2008-1480
Effect on production of replacing dietary starch with sucrose in lactating dairy cows.
G. Broderick (2008)
10.3168/jds.2010-3435
Population structure of rumen Escherichia coli associated with subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cattle.
Ehsan Khafipour (2011)
10.3168/jds.2015-9393
The influence of age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract in Holstein bull calves.
Katie M. Wood (2015)
10.1111/j.1439-0442.1993.tb00637.x
Influence of food deprivation on SCFA and electrolyte transport across sheep reticulorumen.
Gotthold Gaebel (1993)
10.2527/1998.761275x
Acidosis in cattle: a review.
F. N. Owens (1998)
10.1007/BFb0116586
Endotoxin tolerance-mechanisms and beneficial effects in bacterial infection.
Martin D. Lehner (2002)
Investigation of the possible role of endotoxin, TXA2, PGI2 and PGE2 in experimentally induced rumen acidosis in cattle.
P. Haubro Andersen (1990)
10.1242/jeb.055582
Sheep rumen and omasum primary cultures and source epithelia: barrier function aligns with expression of tight junction proteins
F. Stumpff (2011)
10.3168/jds.2008-1389
A grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis challenge causes translocation of lipopolysaccharide and triggers inflammation.
E. Khafipour (2009)
10.3168/jds.2015-9683
Invited review: Inflammation during the transition to lactation: New adventures with an old flame.
Barry J. Bradford (2015)
10.3168/jds.2009-2178
Relationships between rumen lipopolysaccharide and mediators of inflammatory response with milk fat production and efficiency in dairy cows.
Q. Zebeli (2009)
10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76074-0
Relationship between fermentation acid production in the rumen and the requirement for physically effective fiber.
M. S. Allen (1997)
10.1007/s00424-017-2105-9
A look at the smelly side of physiology: transport of short chain fatty acids
Friederike Stumpff (2017)
10.1152/ajpregu.00120.2010
Bovine rumen epithelium undergoes rapid structural adaptations during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis.
Michael A Steele (2011)
10.2527/jas.2012-5774
Recovery of absorptive function of the reticulo-rumen and total tract barrier function in beef cattle after short-term feed restriction.
Shaofeng Zhang (2013)
10.1152/ajpregu.00068.2013
A high-grain diet causes massive disruption of ruminal epithelial tight junctions in goats.
Jun-hua Liu (2013)
10.3168/jds.2014-9043
Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows.
Christina Jørgensen (2016)
10.1007/s003600000107
Role of Na+/ H+ exchange and HCO3− transport in pHi recovery from intracellular acid load in cultured epithelial cells of sheep rumen
F. Müller (2000)
Histamine, lactic acid, and hypertonicity as factors in the development of rumenitis in cattle.
Frederick A. Ahrens (1967)
10.1007/s11306-010-0227-6
Metabolomics reveals unhealthy alterations in rumen metabolism with increased proportion of cereal grain in the diet of dairy cows
B. Ametaj (2010)
10.3168/jds.2014-8697
Effects of ruminal doses of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells.
Masaaki Oba (2015)
10.2527/jas.2012-5669
Short-term feed restriction impairs the absorptive function of the reticulo-rumen and total tract barrier function in beef cattle.
Shaofeng Zhang (2013)
10.1371/journal.pone.0193313
Inclusion of live yeast and mannan-oligosaccharides in high grain-based diets for sheep: Ruminal parameters, inflammatory response and rumen morphology
Tatiana Garcia Diaz (2018)
10.2527/jas.2013-6472
Duration of time that beef cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects the recovery from a bout of ruminal acidosis: short-chain fatty acid and lactate absorption, saliva production, and blood metabolites.
Tyler Schwaiger (2013)
10.2527/jas.2014-7594
Experimental acute rumen acidosis in sheep: consequences on clinical, rumen, and gastrointestinal permeability conditions and blood chemistry.
Andrea Minuti (2014)
10.3168/jds.2011-5167
The relationship between rumen acidosis resistance and expression of genes involved in regulation of intracellular pH and butyrate metabolism of ruminal epithelial cells in steers.
Nicole A Schlau (2012)
10.3168/jds.2016-11966
Thiamine supplementation facilitates thiamine transporter expression in the rumen epithelium and attenuates high-grain-induced inflammation in low-yielding dairy cows.
X H Pan (2017)
10.2527/jas.2016-0638
Effects of subacute ruminal acidosis and low feed intake on short-chain fatty acid transporters and flux pathways in Holstein steers.
A. H. Laarman (2016)
10.1016/J.LIVSCI.2012.08.009
Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows
Rittichai Pilachai (2012)
10.1172/JCI84429
Oxygen metabolism and barrier regulation in the intestinal mucosa.
L. Glover (2016)
10.1016/0305-0491(87)90433-0
Occurrence, absorption and metabolism of short chain fatty acids in the digestive tract of mammals.
M. Bugaut (1987)
10.1079/AHRR200237
Transfer of energy substrates across the ruminal epithelium: implications and limitations.
G. Gaebel (2002)
10.3168/jds.2008-1784
Modeling of off-feed periods caused by subacute acidosis in intensive lactating ruminants: application to goats.
Meggie Desnoyers (2009)
10.1016/j.rvsc.2012.02.004
Interplay between rumen digestive disorders and diet-induced inflammation in dairy cattle.
Qendrim Zebeli (2012)
[The effect of nutritional factors on the ruminal mucosa. 3. Condition of the mucosa after infusion of propionic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid].
P. Kauffold (1977)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1965.tb47466.x
D-lactic acidosis of ruminants.
R. Dunlop (1965)
10.1084/jem.20031023
LPS-TLR4 Signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-κB Involves the Toll Adapters TRAM and TRIF
K. Fitzgerald (2003)
10.1371/journal.pone.0164192
Evidence of In Vivo Absorption of Lactate and Modulation of Short Chain Fatty Acid Absorption from the Reticulorumen of Non-Lactating Cattle Fed High Concentrate Diets
Muhammad Qumar (2016)
10.2527/jas.2010-3378
Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Molecular adaptation of ruminal epithelia to highly fermentable diets.
G Penner (2011)
10.3920/BM2014.0041
Contribution of microbiota to the intestinal physicochemical barrier.
Joshua J. Malago (2015)
10.1083/jcb.44.3.501
FORMATION OF HORNY CELLS: The Fate of Cell Organelles and Differentiation Products in Ruminal Epithelium
Robert M Lavker (1970)
10.1016/j.bbamcr.2013.06.010
Cell death by cornification.
Leopold Eckhart (2013)
10.1016/J.ANIFEEDSCI.2011.12.004
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), endotoxins and health consequences
Jan C. Plaizier (2012)
10.3168/jds.2016-12349
Intentionally induced intestinal barrier dysfunction causes inflammation, affects metabolism, and reduces productivity in lactating Holstein cows.
S. Kvidera (2017)
10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73431-1
Effect of molasses supplementation on the production of lactating dairy cows fed diets based on alfalfa and corn silage.
G. Broderick (2004)
10.1007/s00360-005-0021-3
Luminal hyperosmolarity decreases Na transport and impairs barrier function of sheep rumen epithelium
Monika Schweigel (2005)
10.2527/jas1979.482367x
Histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and electrolytes during glucose induced lactic acidosis.
Louis Neal Irwin (1979)
10.1113/expphysiol.1989.sp003237
The effect of low mucosal pH on sodium and chloride movement across the isolated rumen mucosa of sheep.
Gotthold Gaebel (1989)
10.2527/jas.2011-4786
Factors affecting body weight loss during commercial long haul transport of cattle in North America.
Lai Arrieta González (2012)
10.1111/j.1439-0442.1988.tb00019.x
Reversibility of acid induced changes in absorptive function of sheep rumen.
Gotthold Gaebel (1988)
10.1113/expphysiol.1987.sp003092
The effect of diet, intraruminal pH and osmolarity on sodium, chloride and magnesium absorption from the temporarily isolated and washed reticulo-rumen of sheep.
Gotthold Gaebel (1987)
10.1530/JOE-11-0299
Effects of Na-butyrate supplementation in milk formula on plasma concentrations of GH and insulin, and on rumen papilla development in calves.
Shin-ichi Kato (2011)
10.3168/jds.2014-8827
Effects of partial replacement of dietary starch from barley or corn with lactose on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid absorption, nitrogen utilization, and production performance of dairy cows.
G. E. Chibisa (2015)
10.1111/jpn.12850
Signals for identifying cows at risk of subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy veterinary practice
Elke Humer (2018)
10.1007/BF00260803
Short-chain fatty acids and CO2 as regulators of Na+ and Cl− absorption in isolated sheep rumen mucosa
G. Gaebel (2004)
10.2527/jas.2007-0634
Critical control points in the impact of the proinflammatory immune response on growth and metabolism.
Ted H. Elsasser (2008)
10.1128/CMR.8.2.268
Endotoxemia: methods of detection and clinical correlates.
J. Hurley (1995)
10.3168/jds.2011-4447
Effects of subacute ruminal acidosis challenges on fermentation and endotoxins in the rumen and hindgut of dairy cows.
S. Li (2012)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar