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Redox Balance-DDR-miRNA Triangle: Relevance In Genome Stability And Stress Responses In Plants
Sara Cimini, Carla Gualtieri, A. Macovei, A. Balestrazzi, L. De Gara, V. Locato
Published 2019 · Biology, Medicine
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Plants are continuously faced with complex environmental conditions which can affect the oxidative metabolism and photosynthetic efficiency, thus leading to the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Over a certain threshold, ROS can damage DNA. DNA damage, unless repaired, can affect genome stability, thus interfering with cell survival and severely reducing crop productivity. A complex network of pathways involved in DNA damage response (DDR) needs to be activated in order to maintain genome integrity. The expression of specific genes belonging to these pathways can be used as indicators of oxidative DNA damage and effective DNA repair in plants subjected to stress conditions. Managing ROS levels by modulating their production and scavenging systems shifts the role of these compounds from toxic molecules to key messengers involved in plant tolerance acquisition. Oxidative and anti-oxidative signals normally move among the different cell compartments, including the nucleus, cytosol, and organelles. Nuclei are dynamically equipped with different redox systems, such as glutathione (GSH), thiol reductases, and redox regulated transcription factors (TFs). The nuclear redox network participates in the regulation of the DNA metabolism, in terms of transcriptional events, replication, and repair mechanisms. This mainly occurs through redox-dependent regulatory mechanisms comprising redox buffering and post-translational modifications, such as the thiol-disulphide switch, glutathionylation, and S-nitrosylation. The regulatory role of microRNAs (miRNAs) is also emerging for the maintenance of genome stability and the modulation of antioxidative machinery under adverse environmental conditions. In fact, redox systems and DDR pathways can be controlled at a post-transcriptional level by miRNAs. This review reports on the interconnections between the DDR pathways and redox balancing systems. It presents a new dynamic picture by taking into account the shared regulatory mechanism mediated by miRNAs in plant defense responses to stress.
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