Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

A Review Of C4 Plants In Southwest Asia: An Ecological, Geographical And Taxonomical Analysis Of A Region With High Diversity Of C4 Eudicots

Alexander Rudov, M. Mashkour, M. Djamali, H. Akhani
Published 2020 · Medicine, Geography

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy Visualize in Litmaps
Reduce the time it takes to create your bibliography by a factor of 10 by using the world’s favourite reference manager
Time to take this seriously.
Get Citationsy
Southwest Asia is climatically and topographically a highly diverse region in the xeric belt of the Old World. Its diversity of arid habitats and climatic conditions acted as an important area for the evolution and diversification of up to 20 (of 38 known) independent Eudicot C4 origins. Some of these lineages present unique evolutionary strategies like single-cell functioning C4 and C3–C4 switching mechanisms. The high diversity of C4 taxa in Southwest (SW) Asia is also related to the presence of seven phytogeographic zones including the Irano-Turanian region as a center of diversification of many Caryophyllales lineages and the Somali-Masai region (Southern Oman and Yemen) as a center of diversification for C4 Monocots. Nevertheless, the C4 flora of SW Asia has not received detailed attention. This paper presents a comprehensive review of all known C4 species in the area based on a literature survey, own floristic observations, as well as taxonomic, phylogenetic and herbarium data, and δ13C-isotope ratio analysis. The resulting checklist includes a total number of 923 (861 native, of which 141 endemic, and 62 introduced) C4 species, composed of 350 Eudicots and 509 Monocots, most of which are therophytic and hemicryptophytic xerophytes with pluriregional and Irano-Turanian distribution. Two hundred thirty-nine new δ13C-isotope ratios of C4 and C3 plants, as well as some taxonomic changes are presented. An analysis of the distribution of the three main C4 plant families (Chenopodiaceae, Poaceae, and Cyperaceae) in the region in relation to climatic variables indicates that the increase of C4 species follows more or less a latitudinal gradient similar to global patterns, while separate taxonomic groups seem to depend on specific factors as continentality (Chenopodiaceae), average annual temperature (Cyperaceae), and the presence of summer precipitation (Poaceae). An increase of C4 Eudicots in W-E direction even in similar longitudinal belts is explained by a combination of edaphic and climatic conditions. The provided data should encourage a deeper interest in the evolution of C4 lineages in SW Asia and their adaptation to ecological and climatical conditions and awaken interest in the importance of local C4 crops, the conservation of threatened C4 taxa, and awareness of human impacts on the rapid environmental changes in the region.
This paper references
Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands.
P. Davis (1965)
Vegetation types in the Las Bela region of West Pakistan
R. E. Snead (1966)
Flora of Iraq,” vols
E. Guest (1966)
The grain amaranths and their relatives: a revised taxonomic and geographic survey
J. Sauer (1967)
Flora Iranica : Flora des iranischen Hochlandes und der umrahmenden Gebirge : Persien, Afghanistan, Teile von West-Pakistan, Nord-Iraq, Azerbaidjan, Turkmenistan
K. Rechinger (1970)
A first inventory of gypsum flora in the Palearctic and Australia
F. Pérez-García (1970)
Zohary (1973)
A. Raghavendra (1976)
The Geographic Distribution of C4 Species of the Dicotyledonae in Relation to Climate
L. G. Stowe (1978)
Occurrence of C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways in North American Grasses.
S. S. Waller (1979)
Composite List of C4Weeds
C. D. Elmore (1983)
Contributions to the vegetation of the Yemen Arab Republic I Plant communities and ecotope pattern of the Mountainous Tihamah, studied in the At Tur basin (Y.A.R.)
U. Deil (1985)
Strand plant communities of the Indian sub-continent
T. Rao (1985)
Beiträge zur Vegetation des Jemen I Pflanzengesellschaften und Öketopgefüge der Gebirgstihamah am Beispiel des Beckens von At Tur (J.A.R.)
U. Deil (1985)
Sudanian elements in the Flora of Israel
A. Shmida (1986)
Contributions to the Vegetation of Southwest Asia
K. Harald (1986)
Kürschner (1986)
Carbon Isotopes in PhotosynthesisFractionation techniques may reveal new aspects of carbon dynamics in plants
M. H. O'leary (1988)
Domestication of plants in the old world
D. Zohary (1988)
Nikitin (1988)
Contribution a l'etude de la Flore et de la Vegetation des Deserts d'Iran
J Leónard (1988)
Contribution a l’etude de la Flore et de la Vegetation des Deserts d’Iran (Dasht-E-Kavir, Dasht-E-Lut, Jaz Murian)
J. Léonard (1988)
Opredelitel rastenij Turkmenistana
V. Nikitin (1988)
Contribution a l’etude de la Flore et de la Vegetation des Deserts d’Iran (Dasht-E-Kavir, Dasht-E-Lut, Jaz Murian). Fasc. 8: Etude des aires de distribution, Les phytochories, Les chorotypes
Léonard (1988)
Ecophysiology of xerophytic and halophytic vegetation of a coastal alluvial plain in northern Venezuela: I. Site description and plant communities.
E. Medina (1989)
Flora of Iraq
E. Guest (1989)
Preliminary report on the Amarna basketry and cordage,” in Amarna Reports
W. Wendrich (1989)
Preliminary report on the Amarna basketry and cordage
Wendrich (1989)
Preacondicionamiento y aclimatación, en condiciones de invernáculo, de plántulas micropropagadas de frutilla, menta, papa y vid
C. Riquelme (1991)
Phytogeographical links between Africa and Southwest Asia
White (1991)
Takhtajian (1992)
Nechayeva (1992)
Rastitelnost Turkmenistana ( Ashgabat , Ylym ) .
N. T. Nechayeva (1992)
Floristic Regions of the World (Berkeley: University of California Press)
A. Takhtajian (1992)
Wetlands of the world: Inventory, ecology and management Volume I
D. Whigham (1993)
Wetlands of theworld I lnventory , ecology , and management
D. F. Whigham (1993)
Duke (1993)
1993).Wetlands of theworld I lnventory, ecology, and management
D. F. Whigham (1993)
The vegetation of Cholistan and Thai deserts, Pakistan
A. Dasti (1994)
Biogeography and Ecology of Turkmenistan
V. Fet (1994)
Small millets in global agriculture
B. Sharma (1994)
The vegetation of Cholistan and Thal deserts
A Dasti (1994)
Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra
Anthony G. Miller (1996)
Monsoons and the dynamics of deserts
M. Rodwell (1996)
Review of the genus Tribulus L
F. Al-Hemaid (1996)
Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System Phytosociological Research Center
S Rivas-Martinez (1996)
Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System
S. Rivas-Martinez (1996)
Miller (1996)
Review of the genus Tribulus L. @ in Saudi Arabia
Al-Hemaid (1996)
Tef: Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter.
S. Ketema (1997)
Vegetation of the Arabian Peninsula
S. Ghazanfar (1998)
2 – C4 Photosynthesis: A Historical Overview
M. D. Hatch (1999)
Features of Photosynthesis in Haloxylon species of Chenopodiaceae that are Dominant Plants in Central Asian Deserts
V. Pyankov (1999)
C 4 photosynthesis : A historical overview , ” in
J. V. Patil (1999)
C4 photosynthesis: A historical overview,
Vegetation of Israel I
A. Danin (1999)
Features of Photosynthesis in Haloxylon species of Chenopodiaceae Frontiers in Plant Science | www . frontiersin . org 27 that are Dominant Plants in Central Asian Deserts
V. Pyankov (1999)
Features of Photosynthesis in Haloxylon species of Chenopodiaceae Frontiers in Plant Science
A remarkable new leaf type with unusual photosynthetic tissue in a central Asiatic genus of Chenopodiaceae.
H. Freitag (2000)
Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.): An Unconventional Crop. Studies Related to Applications and Cultivation
B. P. España (2000)
C4 plants in the vegetation of Mongolia: their natural occurrence and geographical distribution in relation to climate
V. Pyankov (2000)
Zohary (2000)
Cyperaceae of economic, ethnobotanical and. horticultural importance: a checklist
D. Simpson (2001)
Origin and evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) based on anatomical and biochemical types in leaves and cotyledons
V. Pyankov (2001)
Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals)
R. Mansfeld (2001)
Environmental and Evolutionary Preconditionsfor the Origin and Diversification of the C4 PhotosyntheticSyndrome
R. Sage (2001)
Kranz anatomy is not essential for terrestrial C4 plant photosynthesis
E. Voznesenskaya (2001)
An Altitudinal And Stable Carbon Isotope Survey of C3 and C4 Graminoids On Mount Kenya
M. Wooller (2001)
The order Aeluropodetalia littoralis in the flood plain of Atrek River (South West Turkmenia)
I. D. Rukhlenko (2001)
2001).Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
P. doi 10.1002ptr.1981 Hanelt (2001)
DOMESTICATION OF PLANTS IN THE OLD WORLD: THE ORIGIN AND SPREAD OF CULTIVATED PLANTS IN WEST ASIA, EUROPE AND THE NILE VALLEY. Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. 2000. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 316 pp. Hardcover, £22.95. ISBN 0-19850-356-3.
R. Mechoulam (2002)
Phylogenetics of Miscanthus, Saccharum and related genera (Saccharinae, Andropogoneae, Poaceae) based on DNA sequences from ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA and plastid trnL intron and trnL-F intergenic spacers
T. Hodkinson (2002)
Proof of C4 photosynthesis without Kranz anatomy in Bienertia cycloptera (Chenopodiaceae).
E. Voznesenskaya (2002)
Response of C3 and C4 grasses to supplemental summer precipitation.
R. Skinner (2002)
Photosynthetic pathways and habitats of grasses in Golestan National Park (NE Iran), with an emphasis on the C4-grass dominated rock communities
H. Akhani (2002)
The origin and evolution of Eragrostis tef (Poaceae) and related polyploids: evidence from nuclear waxy and plastid rps16.
A. L. Ingram (2003)
Phylogeny of Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae and the Evolution of C4 Photosynthesis
G. Kadereit (2003)
Ecology, Biogeography and Pollen Morphology of Bienertia cycloptera Bunge ex Boiss. (Chenopodiaceae), an Enigmatic C4 Plant without Kranz Anatomy
H. Akhani (2003)
An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV
K. Bremer (2003)
Ecology and biomass production of Cyperus papyrus L. on the Nile bank at Damietta, Egypt
M. Serag (2003)
The origin and evolution of Eragrostis tef ( Poaceae ) and related polyploids : evidence from nuclear waxy and plastid rps 16
A. L. Ingram (2003)
Phylogeny of Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae and the Evolution of C 4
G Kadereit (2003)
Distribution of South African C3 and C4 species of Cyperaceae in relation to climate and phylogeny
W. Stock (2004)
Ecological and phylogenetic patterns of carbon isotope discrimination in the winter-rainfall flora of the Richtersveld, South Africa
P. Rundel (2004)
Carbon isotope discrimination in alpine succulent plants supposed to be capable of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)
C. Osmond (2004)
Vegetation of Israel. I. Desert and Coastal Vegetation. Edited by Avinoam Danin and Gideon Orshan
S. Breckle (2004)
Photosynthetic pathways, distribution, and ecological characteristics of grass species in egypt
K. Batanouny (2004)
Diversity, metabolic types and δ13C carbon isotope ratios in the grass flora of Namibia in relation to growth form, precipitation and habitat conditions
E. Schulze (2004)
The distribution of C3 and C4 grasses and carbon isotope discrimination along an altitudinal and moisture gradient in Kenya
L. Tieszen (2004)
H. Akhani (2004)
The vegetation of riverian tract of the indus around Ghulam Mohammed Barrage, West Pakistan
I. I. Chaudhri (2004)
The distribution of C3 and C4 grasses in Australia in relation to climate
P. Hattersley (2004)
Transhumant Grazing Systems in Temperate Asia
J. Morrison (2004)
Occurrence of C3 and C4 photosynthesis in cotyledons and leaves of Salsola species (Chenopodiaceae)
V. Pyankov (2004)
Photosynthetic pathways inChenopodiaceae from Africa, Asia and Europe with their ecological, phytogeographical and taxonomical importance
H. Akhani (2004)
Leaf carbon isotope ratios of plants from a subtropical monsoon forest
J. Ehleringer (2004)
Single-cell C(4) photosynthesis versus the dual-cell (Kranz) paradigm.
G. Edwards (2004)
C4 plants of high biomass in arid regions of asia-occurrence of C4 photosynthesis in Chenopodiaceae and Polygonaceae from the Middle East and USSR
K. Winter (2004)
Climatic patterns and the distribution of C4 grasses in North America
J. A. Teeri (2004)
Rangelands of the Arid and Semi-arid Zones of Uzbekistan
D. L. Scarnecchia (2004)
The evolution of C4 photosynthesis.
R. Sage (2004)
Differentiation of cellular and biochemical features of the single-cell C4 syndrome during leaf development in Bienertia cycloptera (Chenopodiaceae).
E. Voznesenskaya (2005)
The global distribution of ecosystems in a world without fire.
W. Bond (2005)
Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Cymbopogon nervatus inflorescence.
H. El-kamali (2005)
Fire and the Miocene expansion of C4 grasslands
J. Keeley (2005)
Nature's green revolution: the remarkable evolutionary rise of C4 plants
C. Osborne (2005)
Bienertia sinuspersici (Chenopodiaceae): A New Species from Southwest Asia and Discovery of a Third Terrestrial C4 Plant Without Kranz Anatomy
H. Akhani (2005)
Anatomy and Vascular Bundle Diversity in Mat sedges
Ravichandran (2005)
The Cytoskeleton Maintains Organelle Partitioning Required for Single-Cell C4 Photosynthesis in Chenopodiaceae Species[W]
S. D. Chuong (2006)
Taxonomic Status of Some of the Tribulus Species in the Indian Subcontinent
M. Varghese (2006)
Phylogenetic Relationships in the Salicornioideae / Suaedoideae / Salsoloideae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) Clade and a Clarification of the Phylogenetic Position of Bienertia and Alexandra Using Multiple DNA Sequence Datasets
M. Kapralov (2006)
Reduction of fat storage in mice fed a high‐fat diet long term by treatment with saponins prepared from Kochia scoparia fruit
Li-kun Han (2006)
Biodiversity of halophytic and sabkha ecosystems in Iran
H. Akhani (2006)
C3/C4 plants in the vegetation of Central Asia, geographical distribution and environmental adaptation in relation to climate
K. Toderich (2007)
Will dragonblood survive the next period of climate change? Current and future potential distribution of Dracaena cinnabari (Socotra, Yemen)
F. Attorre (2007)
Photosynthetic pathway variation among C4 grasses along a precipitation gradient in Argentina
M. Cabido (2007)
Plants traditionally used to make brooms in several European countries
A. Nedelcheva (2007)
Diversification of the Old World Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Nuclear and Chloroplast Data Sets and a Revised Classification
H. Akhani (2007)
An Introduction to Sugarcane
G. James (2007)
Edible Leaves and Fruits
Danin (2007)
Edible Leaves and Fruits,” in Plant Stories
A. Danin (2007)
Diversity of photosynthetic organs in Chenopodiaceae from Golestan National Park (NE Iran) based on carbon isotope composition and anatomy of leaves and cotyledons
Akhani (2007)
Syntaxonomic analysis of theAndropogon-rich grasslands (Hyparrhenietalia hirtae) in the western Mediterranean region
B. Díez-Garretas (2008)
CRC handbook of alternative cash crops
D. Austin (2008)
Structural, biochemical, and physiological characterization of photosynthesis in two C4 subspecies of Tecticornia indica and the C3 species Tecticornia pergranulata (Chenopodiaceae).
E. Voznesenskaya (2008)
Land subsidence in Iran caused by widespread water reservoir overexploitation
M. Motagh (2008)
Photosynthetic properties of C4 plants growing in an African savanna/wetland mosaic.
K. B. Mantlana (2008)
Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus boeck.): An unconventional crop. studies related to applications and cultivation
B. Pascual (2008)
Does Bienertia cycloptera with the single-cell system of C4 photosynthesis exhibit a seasonal pattern of δ13C values in nature similar to co-existing C4 Chenopodiaceae having the dual-cell (Kranz) system?
H. Akhani (2008)
Oligocene CO2 Decline Promoted C4 Photosynthesis in Grasses
P. Christin (2008)
The genera Aristida and Stipagrostis (Poaceae) in Iran
Maryam Ghasemkhani (2008)
Maize Cobs and Cultures: History of Zea mays L.
J. Staller (2009)
21st century climate change in the Middle East
Jason P. Evans (2009)
Essential Oil-Bearing Grasses : The genus Cymbopogon
A. Akhila (2009)
Chufa Tubers (Cyperus esculentus L.): As a New Source of Food
S. M. Arafat (2009)
The spatial pattern of summertime subtropical anticyclones over Asia and Africa: A climatological review
A. Zarrin (2009)
An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. {APG} {III}
Apg (2009)
Does Bienertia cycloptera with the single-cell system of C-4 photosynthesis
H. Akhani (2009)
Botany, including anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology
M. Bertea (2009)
The spatial pattern
A. Zarrin (2009)
Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.
Wafaa M El-Ghanim (2010)
The phylogeny of Calligonum and Pteropyrum (Polygonaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and chloroplast trnL-F sequences
S. Tavakkoli (2010)
Chapter 17 The Geologic History of C4 Plants
C. Osborne (2010)
European plants with C4 photosynthesis: geographical and taxonomic distribution and relations to climate parameters
V. Pyankov (2010)
Purslane: A Review of its Potential for Health and Agricultural Aspects.
M. Gonnella (2010)
The climate of Socotra Island (Yemen): A first-time assessment of the timing of the monsoon wind reversal and its influence on precipitation and vegetation patterns
P. Scholte (2010)
Indian Summer Monsoon variations could have affected the early-Holocene woodland expansion in the Near East
M. Djamali (2010)
Ethnobotany of Eulaliopsis binata
S Sahu (2010)
Field Guide Afghanistan - Flora and Vegetation
S. Breckle (2010)
Field Guide Afghanistan - Flora and Vegetation. Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
Breckle (2010)
Ethnobotany of Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) Hubbard- Poaceae, in Odisha, Eastern India: Cultivation Practice, Economics and Prospects
Sahu (2010)
Application of the Global Bioclimatic Classification to Iran: implications for understanding the modern vegetation and biogeography
M. Djamali (2011)
Molecular phylogeny of Camphorosmeae (Camphorosmoideae, Chenopodiaceae): Implications for biogeography, evolution of C4‐photosynthesis and taxonomy
G. Kadereit (2011)
The use of some indigenous plants for medicinal and other purposes by local communities in Namibia with emphasis on Oshikoto region: a review
A. Cheikhyoussef (2011)
The C(4) plant lineages of planet Earth.
R. Sage (2011)
The effect of the Zagros Mountains on the formation and maintenance of the Iran Anticyclone using RegCM4
A. Zarrin (2011)
Opportunities for Growing Tribulus Terrestris L. as Semi-Culture
H. Boteva (2011)
Notulae nomenclaturales 41-45
Gutermann (2011)
The genus Salsola sensu lato (Chenopodiaceae) in southern
Rod Calligonum L
Y. Soskov (2011)
The Halophytic Flora of Syria (Aleppo, Syria: International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas)
M. Al-Oudat (2011)
Rod Calligonum L. -zhuzgun (sistematika, geografiya, evolyutsiya, introduktsiya) [Genus Calligonum L. -zhuzgun (taxonomy, geography, evolution, introduction
Y Soskov (2011)
Soskov (2011)
The Halophytic Flora of Syria
M Al-Oudat (2011)
The genus Salsola sensu lato (Chenopodiaceae) in southern Transcaucasia
Hakobyan (2011)
Al-Oudat (2011)
Vegetation Ecology of Socotra
G. Brown (2012)
A broader model for C4 photosynthesis evolution in plants inferred from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae s.s.)
G. Kadereit (2012)
A new species of Bienertia (Chenopodiaceae) from Iranian salt deserts: A third species of the genus and discovery of a fourth terrestrial C4 plant without Kranz anatomy
H. Akhani (2012)
Photorespiration and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis.
R. Sage (2012)
A new ingredient: The introduction of priprioca in gastronomy
A. Atala (2012)
Patterns of vegetation cover/dynamics in a protected Mediterranean mountain area: Influence of the ecological context and protection policy
D. Gargano (2012)
Detail Study on Boerhaavia Diffusa Plant for its Medicinal Importance- A Review
A. Mahesh (2012)
Desert Plants and Deserted Islands : Systematics and Ethnobotany in Caryophyllaceae
A. Kool (2012)
Climatic determinism in phytogeographic regionalization: A test from the Irano-Turanian region, SW and Central Asia
M. Djamali (2012)
Kool (2012)
First observations of the flora and vegetation of three Islands in the NW Persian Gulf (Iran)
Akhani (2012)
Floristic diversity and vegetation analysis of Wadi Al-Noman, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
K. A. Khalik (2013)
Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.
M. El-Sheikh (2013)
A. Pareek (2013)
The role of fire in Miocene to Pliocene C4 grassland and ecosystem evolution
S. Hoetzel (2013)
Maize cobs and cultures: history of Zea mays L
J. Mt.Pleasant (2013)
Structural and physiological analyses in Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) indicate multiple transitions among C3, intermediate, and C4 photosynthesis
E. Voznesenskaya (2013)
Ethnobotanical and pharmaceutical
A. Pareek (2013)
Notes on the typification and nomenclature of Salsola and Kali (Chenopodiaceae).
H. Akhani (2014)
Purslane Weed (Portulaca oleracea): A Prospective Plant Source of Nutrition, Omega-3 Fatty Acid, and Antioxidant Attributes
M. Uddin (2014)
Carbon isotope discrimination as a tool to explore C4 photosynthesis.
S. von Caemmerer (2014)
Three distinct biochemical subtypes of C4 photosynthesis? A modelling analysis
Y. Wang (2014)
Towards an integrative model of C4 photosynthetic subtypes: insights from comparative transcriptome analysis of NAD-ME, NADP-ME, and PEP-CK C4 species
A. Bräutigam (2014)
Cymbopogon jwarancusa - An important medicinal plant: A review
Chandan Prasad (2014)
Failure of DNA barcoding in discriminating Calligonum species
Y. Li (2014)
Vascular plants of Afghanistan: an augmented checklist by Siegmar‐Walter Breckle, Ian C. Hedge, and M. Daud Rafiqpoor, edited by A. Dittmann. Bonn: Scientia Bonnensis, 2013. Hardback. ISBN 978 3 940766 64 9.
J. Edmondson (2014)
Water management in Iran: what is causing the looming crisis?
K. Madani (2014)
Atriplex halimus L.: Its biology and uses
D. J. Walker (2014)
(2323) Proposal to conserve the name Salsola (Chenopodiaceae s.str.; Amaranthaceae sensu APG) with a conserved type.
S. Mosyakin (2014)
Cymbopogon jwarancusa
Gardens (2014)
Dzyubenko (2014)
Geneticheskie resursy Kokhii prostyortoy Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad (Sankt-Petersburg: SPB:VIR)
N. Dzyubenko (2014)
Madur Kathi – An Important Economic Non-food Crop of West Bengal
Jana (2014)
A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales
Patricia Hernández-Ledesma (2015)
Variations of surface temperature and precipitation in Gilgit-Baltistan (GB), Pakistan from 1955 to 2010
M. Raza (2015)
Developmental Genetic Mechanisms of C4 Syndrome Based on Transcriptome Analysis of C3 Cotyledons and C4 Assimilating Shoots in Haloxylon ammodendron
Yuanyuan Li (2015)
A new species of Kali (Salsoloideae, Chenopodiaceae) from Sicily, supported by molecular analysis
C. Brullo (2015)
Evaluation of the halophyte Salsola soda as an alternative crop for saline soils high in selenium and boron.
T. Centofanti (2015)
Iran's environment under siege.
H. Akhani (2015)
The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants - Flowering Plants (Monocots
E. A. Kellogg (2015)
Grassland vegetation of India: An update
M. Chandran (2015)
Grassland vegetation of India: An update. Ecology and Management of Grassland Ecology in India -. Envis Bull. 17. Wildlife Institute of India
M Chandran (2015)
Plants and Vegetation of North-West Persian Gulf: The coasts and Islands of Khore Musa (Mahshahr and Adjacent Areas
H. Akhani (2015)
Phytogeography of the Nepalese flora and its floristic links to neighbouring regions
E. Welk (2015)
Akhani (2015)
Welk (2015)
Grassland vegetation of India: An update. Ecology and Management of Grassland Ecology in India -
Chandran (2015)
Kellogg (2015)
Grassland vegetation of India : An update . Ecology and Management of Grassland Ecology in India -
I. I. Chaudhri (2015)
A comparison of ITS sequence data and morphology for Calligonum pumilum and C. mongolicum (Polygonaceae) and its taxonomic implications
Wei Lin Shi (2016)
Photorespiration connects C3 and C4 photosynthesis.
A. Bräutigam (2016)
A review on biomass production from C4 grasses: yield and quality for end-use.
A. Tubeileh (2016)
A portrait of the C4 photosynthetic family on the 50th anniversary of its discovery: species number, evolutionary lineages, and Hall of Fame.
R. Sage (2016)
Future temperature in southwest Asia projected to exceed a threshold for human adaptability
J. Pal (2016)
Vegetation of Europe: hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities
L. Mucina (2016)
Therapeutic uses of plants of genus Blepharis- a systematic review
S. Vijayalakshmi (2016)
Comparison of two methods for field grow of puncture vine (Tribulus terrestris L.) in Slovakia
I. Salamon (2016)
Loss of a single tree species will lead to an overall decline in plant diversity: Effect of Dracaena cinnabari Balf. f. on the vegetation of Socotra Island
M. Rejžek (2016)
Engineering C4 photosynthesis into C3 chassis in the synthetic biology age.
M. L. Schuler (2016)
Why are there no C4 forests?
R. Sage (2016)
The Differences between NAD-ME and NADP-ME Subtypes of C4 Photosynthesis: More than Decarboxylating Enzymes
Xiaolan Rao (2016)
Climate-driven C4 plant distributions in China: divergence in C4 taxa
Ren-zhong Wang (2016)
Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants: 68
W. Applequist (2016)
Why Are There No C4 Forests? J
R. Sage (2016)
Why Are There No C 4 Forests ?
S. Sultmanis (2016)
Plant diversity of saline wetlands and salt marshes of Iran
Akhani (2016)
Future temperature in southwest Asia
E.A.B. Eltahir (2016)
Habitats of Armenia
Fayvush (2016)
Useful Temperate Plants Database
K Fern (2016)
Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench
P. S. Reddy (2017)
Climate change impacts in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region and their implications for vulnerable population groups
K. Waha (2017)
Pearl Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.
P. S. Reddy (2017)
Kali versus Salsola : the instructive story of a questionable nomenclatural resurrection
S. Mosyakin (2017)
Quantifying groundwater exploitation induced subsidence in the Rafsanjan plain, southeastern Iran, using InSAR time-series and in situ measurements
M. Motagh (2017)
Millets and Sorghum: Biology and Genetic Improvement
J. Patil (2017)
High-biomass C4 grasses-Filling the yield gap.
J. Mullet (2017)
Molecular phylogeny and forms of photosynthesis in tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae)
Christina Schüssler (2017)
Proso Millet, Panicum miliaceum (L.): Genetic Improvement and Research Needs
S. Gomashe (2017)
A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the Poaceae (Gramineae) II: An update and a comparison of two 2015 classifications
R. Soreng (2017)
Foxtail Millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.
K. Hariprasanna (2017)
C3 cotyledons are followed by C4 leaves: intra-individual transcriptome analysis of Salsola soda (Chenopodiaceae)
Maximilian Lauterbach (2017)
Quantifying groundwater exploitation induced
H Nahavandchi (2017)
Kali versus Salsola: the instructive
S. L. Mosyakin (2017)
From cacti to carnivores: Improved phylotranscriptomic sampling and hierarchical homology inference provide further insight into the evolution of Caryophyllales.
Joseph F. Walker (2018)
Novel Sacrificial Medicinal Repositories: Halfa grass, Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) and Cogon grass, Imperata cylindrica (L.)
V. Khyade (2018)
Response of the Intertropical Convergence Zone to Climate Change: Location, Width, and Strength
M. Byrne (2018)
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017
N. Turland (2018)
Turland (2018)
IRIMO Data Base of Iranian Meteorological Organization
Eds) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress
N. J. Turland (2018)
Biodiversity Conservation or Biotechnology: What is Iran’s priority today? Strategic Res
H. Akhani (2018)
Ground surface response to continuous compaction of aquifer system in Tehran, Iran: Results from a long-term multi-sensor InSAR analysis
M. Haghighi (2019)
Research strategies for mechanised production of rice in transition from subsistence to commercial agriculture: a case study from Khammouan in Lao PDR
S. Fukai (2019)
A late Pleistocene-Holocene multi-proxy record of climate variability in the Jazmurian playa, southeastern Iran
A. Vaezi (2019)
Analysis of deflection and dynamic plant characteristics of Cyperus malaccensis Lam
Mana Shioya (2019)
Taxonomic revision of Chenopodiaceae in Himalaya and Tibet
A. P. Sukhorukov (2019)
Is Pteropyrum a pathway to C4 evolution in Polygonaceae? An integrative approach to the taxonomy and anatomy of Pteropyrum (C3), an immediate relative of Calligonum (C4)
M. Doostmohammadi (2019)
International Plant Names Index (The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Harvard University Herbaria & Libraries and Australian National Botanic Gardens)
Ipni (2019)
Bioclimatic Classification System)
Gbc worldwide (2019)
Plants of the World Online (Facilitated by the Royal Botanic
Mediterranean Bot (2019)
Diversity, distribution, endemism and conservation status of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in SW Asia and adjacent countries
A. Pahlevani (2020)
Vegetation patterns of a rapidly drying up salt lake ecosystem: Lake Urmia, NW Iran
A. Ghorbanalizadeh (2020)
Plants of the World Online.
Powo (2020)
Is Pteropyrum a pathway to C 4 evolution in Polygonaceae ? An integrative approach to the taxonomy and anatomy of Pteropyrum ( C 3 ) , an immediate relative to Calligonum ( C 4 )
M. Doostmohammadi (2020)
Vegetation patterns
Dordrecht Springer (2020)
Portulaca oleracea): A Prospective Plant Source of Nutrition
Purslane Weed

This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar