Date Palm Pollen: Features, Production, Extraction And Pollination Methods
Date palm pollen (DPP) plays a very important role in the fertilization process, since its viability and the pollination method influence on the quality, development, and yield of the fruit. In the present study, a broad review of its main characteristics, consumption, and DPP production are presented, as well as a description of its extraction methods and viability tests. The evolution of the pollination methods used in the date palm is also presented, from its natural pollination to the use of specialized mechanical and electrical devices, as well as the use of dry DPP and the current trend towards the use of DPP in liquid suspension. Likewise, the efficiency of the methods of natural pollination (wind); traditional (strands placement); dusting hand; dusting with manual, mechanical, or electric pollinator; and liquid pollination were evaluated from the fruit set percentage (FSP). Finally, starting from a scientometric analysis, the pollination methods were widely discussed, concluding that the dusting spraying of pollen suspension with liquid DPP is the pollination method that commonly presents the highest FSP, followed by dusting dry DPP with a motorized pollinator.