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Vanadium And Melanoma: A Systematic Review

Cristina Amante, Ana Luísa De Sousa-Coelho, Manuel Aureliano

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The application of metals in biological systems has been a rapidly growing branch of science. Vanadium has been investigated and reported as an anticancer agent. Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, the incidence of which has been increasing annually worldwide. It is of paramount importance to identify novel pharmacological agents for melanoma treatment. Herein, a systematic review of publications including “Melanoma and Vanadium” was performed. Nine vanadium articles in several melanoma cells lines such as human A375, human CN-mel and murine B16F10, as well as in vivo studies, are described. Vanadium-based compounds with anticancer activity against melanoma include: (1) oxidovanadium(IV); (2) XMenes; (3) vanadium pentoxide, (4) oxidovanadium(IV) pyridinonate compounds; (5) vanadate; (6) polysaccharides vanadium(IV/V) complexes; (7) mixed-metal binuclear ruthenium(II)–vanadium(IV) complexes; (8) pyridoxal-based oxidovanadium(IV) complexes and (9) functionalized nanoparticles of yttrium vanadate doped with europium. Vanadium compounds and/or vanadium materials show potential anticancer activities that may be used as a useful approach to treat melanoma.