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Current Status On Canine Foetal Fluid And Adnexa Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Eleonora Iacono, Romina Marcoccia, Barbara Merlo

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Effective standards of care treatment guidelines have been developed for many canine diseases. However, a subpopulation of patients is partially or completely refractory to these protocols, so their owners seek novel therapies such as treatments with MSCs. Although in dogs, as with human medicine, the most studied MSCs sources have been bone marrow and adipose tissue, in recent years, many researchers have drawn attention towards alternative sources, such as foetal adnexa and fluid, since they possess many advantages over bone marrow and adipose tissue. Foetal adnexa and fluid could be considered as discarded material; therefore, sampling is non-invasive, inexpensive and free from ethical considerations. Furthermore, MSCs derived from foetal adnexa and fluid preserve some of the characteristics of the primitive embryonic layers from which they originate and seem to present immune-modulatory properties that make them a good candidate for allo- and xenotransplantation. The aim of the present review is to offer an update on the state of the art on canine MSCs derived from foetal adnexa and fluid focusing on the findings in their clinical setting.