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Inhibition Of Bacterial And Fungal Biofilm Formation By 675 Extracts From Microalgae And Cyanobacteria

Virginio Cepas, Yuly López, Yaiza Gabasa, Clara B. Martins, Joana D. Ferreira, Maria J. Correia, Lília M.A. Santos, Flávio Oliveira, Vitor Ramos, Mariana Reis, Raquel Castelo-Branco, João Morais, Vitor Vasconcelos, Ian Probert, Emilie Guilloud, Mohamed Mehiri, Sara M. Soto

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Bacterial biofilms are complex biological systems that are difficult to eradicate at a medical, industrial, or environmental level. Biofilms confer bacteria protection against external factors and antimicrobial treatments. Taking into account that about 80% of human infections are caused by bacterial biofilms, the eradication of these structures is a great priority. Biofilms are resistant to old-generation antibiotics, which has led to the search for new antimicrobials from different sources, including deep oceans/seas. In this study, 675 extracts obtained from 225 cyanobacteria and microalgae species (11 phyla and 6 samples belonging to unknown group) were obtained from different culture collections: The Blue Biotechnology and Ecotoxicology Culture Collection (LEGE-CC), the Coimbra Collection of Algae (ACOI) from Portugal, and the Roscoff Culture Collection (RCC) from France. The largest number of samples was made up of the microalgae phylum Chlorophyta (270) followed by Cyanobacteria (261). To obtain a large range of new bioactive compounds, a method involving three consecutive extractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) was used. The antibiofilm activity of extracts was determined against seven different bacterial species and two Candida strains in terms of minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC). The highest biofilm inhibition rates (%) were achieved against Candida albicans and Enterobacter cloacae. Charophyta, Chlorophyta, and Cyanobacteria were the most effective against all microorganisms. In particular, extracts of Cercozoa phylum presented the lowest MBIC50 and MBIC90 values for all the strains except C. albicans.