Signals Getting Crossed In The Entanglement Of Redox And Phosphorylation Pathways: Phosphorylation Of Peroxiredoxin Proteins Sparks Cell Signaling
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have cell signaling properties and are involved in a multitude of processes beyond redox homeostasis. The peroxiredoxin (Prdx) proteins are highly sensitive intracellular peroxidases that can coordinate cell signaling via direct reactive species scavenging or by acting as a redox sensor that enables control of binding partner activity. Oxidation of the peroxidatic cysteine residue of Prdx proteins are the classical post-translational modification that has been recognized to modulate downstream signaling cascades, but increasing evidence supports that dynamic changes to phosphorylation of Prdx proteins is also an important determinant in redox signaling. Phosphorylation of Prdx proteins affects three-dimensional structure and function to coordinate cell proliferation, wound healing, cell fate and lipid signaling. The advent of large proteomic datasets has shown that there are many opportunities to understand further how phosphorylation of Prdx proteins fit into intracellular signaling cascades in normal or malignant cells and that more research is necessary. This review summarizes the Prdx family of proteins and details how post-translational modification by kinases and phosphatases controls intracellular signaling.