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Jasmonates, Ethylene And Brassinosteroids Control Adventitious And Lateral Rooting As Stress Avoidance Responses To Heavy Metals And Metalloids

Camilla Betti, Federica Della Rovere, Diego Piacentini, Laura Fattorini, Giuseppina Falasca, Maria Maddalena Altamura

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Developmental and environmental signaling networks often converge during plant growth in response to changing conditions. Stress-induced hormones, such as jasmonates (JAs), can influence growth by crosstalk with other signals like brassinosteroids (BRs) and ethylene (ET). Nevertheless, it is unclear how avoidance of an abiotic stress triggers local changes in development as a response. It is known that stress hormones like JAs/ET and BRs can regulate the division rate of cells from the first asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) in meristems, suggesting that stem cell activation may take part in developmental changes as a stress-avoidance-induced response. The root system is a prime responder to stress conditions in soil. Together with the primary root and lateral roots (LRs), adventitious roots (ARs) are necessary for survival in numerous plant species. AR and LR formation is affected by soil pollution, causing substantial root architecture changes by either depressing or enhancing rooting as a stress avoidance/survival response. Here, a detailed overview of the crosstalk between JAs, ET, BRs, and the stress mediator nitric oxide (NO) in auxin-induced AR and LR formation, with/without cadmium and arsenic, is presented. Interactions essential in achieving a balance between growth and adaptation to Cd and As soil pollution to ensure survival are reviewed here in the model species Arabidopsis and rice.