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Management Of Antiretroviral Therapy With Boosted Protease Inhibitors—Darunavir/Ritonavir Or Darunavir/Cobicistat

Ruxandra-Cristina Marin, Tapan Behl, Nicoleta Negrut, Simona Bungau

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A major challenge in the management of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to improve the patient’s adherence, reducing the burden caused by the high number of drugs that compose the treatment regimens for human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) patients. Selection of the most appropriate treatment regimen is responsible for therapeutic success and aims to reduce viremia, increase the immune system response capacity, and reduce the incidence rate and intensity of adverse reactions. In general, protease inhibitor (PI) is one of the pillars of regimens, and darunavir (DRV), in particular, is frequently recommended, along with low doses of enzyme inhibitors as cobicistat (COBI) or ritonavir (RTV), by the international guidelines. The potential of clinically significant drug interactions in patients taking COBI or RTV is high due to the potent inhibitory effect on cytochrome CYP 450, which attracts significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of PIs. Regardless of the patient or type of virus, the combined regimens of DRV/COBI or DRV/RTV are available to clinicians, proving their effectiveness, with a major impact on HIV mortality/morbidity. This study presents current information on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, drug interactions, and adverse reactions of DRV; it not only compares the bioavailability, pharmacokinetic parameters, immunological and virological responses, but also the efficacy, advantages, and therapeutic disadvantages of DRV/COBI or DRV/RTV combinations.