Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate Prevents Apoptosis And Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced By High Glucose In SH-SY5Y Cell Line And Counteracts Neuropathic Pain In Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice
Glycyrrhiza glabra, commonly known as liquorice, contains several bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, sterols, triterpene, and saponins; among which, glycyrrhizic acid, an oleanane-type saponin, is the most abundant component in liquorice root. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus, leading to painful condition as neuropathic pain. The pathogenetic mechanism of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is very complex, and its understanding could lead to a more suitable therapeutic strategy. In this work, we analyzed the effects of ammonium glycyrrhizinate, a derivate salt of glycyrrhizic acid, on an in vitro system, neuroblastoma cells line SH-SY5Y, and we observed that ammonium glycyrrhizinate was able to prevent cytotoxic effect and mitochondrial fragmentation after high-glucose administration. In an in vivo experiment, we found that a short-repeated treatment with ammonium glycyrrhizinate was able to attenuate neuropathic hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. In conclusion, our results showed that ammonium glycyrrhizinate could ameliorate diabetic peripheral neuropathy, counteracting both in vitro and in vivo effects induced by high glucose, and might represent a complementary medicine for the clinical management of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.