Peroxiredoxin II Regulates Cancer Stem Cells And Stemness-Associated Properties Of Cancers
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a sub-population of cancer cells with the ability to regulate stemness-associated properties which are specifically responsible for unlimited growth of cancers, generation of diverse cancer cells in differentiated state and resistance to existing chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Even though, current therapies destroy majority of cancer cells, it is believed to leave CSCs without eradicating which may be the conceptualization for chemoresistance and radio-resistance. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) maintain stem cells and regulate the stemness-associated properties of cancers. Beyond the maximum limit, ROS can damage cellular functions of cancers by subjecting them to oxidative stress. Thus, maintenance of ROS level plays an important role in cancers to regulate stemness-associated properties. Peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) is a member of peroxiredoxin antioxidant enzyme family which considers as a regulator of ROS in cellular environments by modulating redox status to maintain CSC phenotype and stemness properties. Prx II has cell type-dependent expression in various types of cancer cells and overexpression or silenced expression of Prx II in cancers is associated with stem cell phenotype and stemness-associated properties via activation or deactivation of various signaling pathways. In this review, we summarized available studies on Prx II expression in cancers and the mechanisms by which Prx II takes parts to regulate CSCs and stemness-associated properties. We further discussed the potential therapeutic effects of altering Prx II expression in cancers for better anticancer strategies by sensitizing cancer cells and stem cells to oxidative stress and inhibiting stemness-associated properties.