Mechanisms Of Lysophosphatidic Acid-Mediated Lymphangiogenesis In Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common noncutaneous cancer in men worldwide. One of its major treatments is androgen deprivation therapy, but PCa frequently relapses as aggressive castration resistant local tumors and distal metastases. Hence, the development of novel agents or treatment modalities for advanced PCa is crucial. Many tumors, including PCa, first metastasize to regional lymph nodes via lymphatic vessels. Recent findings demonstrate that the bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) promotes PCa progression by regulating vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), a critical mediator of tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Many of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the LPA–VEGF-C axis have been described, revealing potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced PCa. Herein, we review the literature that illustrates a functional role for LPA signaling in PCa progression. These discoveries may be especially applicable to anti-lymphangiogenic strategies for the prevention and therapy of metastatic PCa.