Hydrogen-Peroxide Synthesis And LDL-Uptake Controls Immunosuppressive Properties In Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells
Background and Aims: Induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) is a critical step in immune cell evasion by different cancer types, including liver cancer. In the liver, hepatic stromal cells orchestrate induction of MDSCs, employing a mechanism dependent on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) depletion. However, the effects on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) are unknown. Methods: Monocytes from healthy donors were differentiated to moDCs in the presence of extracellular enzymatic H2O2-depletion (hereinafter CAT-DCs), and studied phenotypically and functionally. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we analyzed H2O2- and LDL-metabolism as they are interconnected in monocyte-driven phagocytosis. Results: CAT-DCs were of an immature DC phenotype, particularly characterized by impaired expression of the costimulatory molecules CD80/86. Moreover, CAT-DCs were able to suppress T-cells using indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and induced IL10/IL17-secreting T-cells—a subtype reported to exert immunosuppression in acute myeloid leukemia. CAT-DCs also displayed significantly increased NADPH-oxidase-driven H2O2-production, enhancing low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-uptake. Blocking LDL-uptake restored maturation, and attenuated the immunosuppressive properties of CAT-DCs. Discussion: Here, we report a novel axis between H2O2- and LDL-metabolism controlling tolerogenic properties in moDCs. Given that moDCs are pivotal in tumor-rejection, and lipid-accumulation is associated with tumor-immune-escape, LDL-metabolism appears to play an important role in tumor-immunology.