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Noninvasive Urine-Based Tests To Diagnose Or Detect Recurrence Of Bladder Cancer

Marine Charpentier, Charly Gutierrez, Thierry Guillaudeux, Grégory Verhoest, Rémy Pedeux

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Liquid biopsies are increasingly used for the diagnosis and follow-up of cancer patients. Urine is a body fluid that can be used to detect cancers and others diseases. It is noninvasive and easy to collect. To detect Bladder Cancer (BC), cytology is the first assay used. It is an effective way to detect high grade BC but has a high rate of equivocal results, especially for low grade BC. Furthermore, cystoscopy is used to confirm cytology results and to determine cancer status. Cystoscopy is also effective but highly invasive, and not well accepted by patients, especially for BC follow-up. In this review we survey the numerous assays recently developed in order to diagnose BC at an early stage, and to facilitate the follow-up of patients. We discuss their effectiveness, ease of use, and applications. Finally, we discuss assays that, in the future, could improve the diagnosis and management of BC patients.