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The Potential Role For Host Genetic Profiling In Screening For Chlamydia-Associated Tubal Factor Infertility (TFI)—New Perspectives

Jelena Malogajski, Ivan Branković, Jolande A. Land, Pierre P. M. Thomas, Servaas A. Morré, Elena Ambrosino

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Host immunogenetic factors can affect late complications of urogenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis. These findings are creating new avenues for updating existing risk prediction models for C. trachomatis-associated tubal factor infertility (TFI). Research into host factors and its utilization may therefore have future implications for diagnosing C. trachomatis-induced infertility. We outline the epidemiological situation regarding C. trachomatis and TFI in high-income countries. Thereupon, we review the main characteristics of the population undergoing fertility work-up and identify screening and diagnostic strategies for TFI currently in place. The Netherlands is an exemplary model for the state of the art in high-income countries. Within the framework of existing clinical approaches, we propose a scenario for the translation of relevant genome-based information into triage of infertile women, with the objective of implementing genetic profiling in the routine investigation of TFI. Furthermore, we describe the state of the art in relevant gene- and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based clinical prediction models and place our perspectives in the context of these applications. We conclude that the introduction of a genetic test of proven validity into the assessment of TFI should help reduce patient burden from invasive and costly examinations by achieving a more precise risk stratification.