Bacteroides Fragilis Enterotoxin Induces Sulfiredoxin-1 Expression In Intestinal Epithelial Cell Lines Through A Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases- And Nrf2-Dependent Pathway, Leading To The Suppression Of Apoptosis
Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis is a causative agent of colitis and secrets enterotoxin (BFT), leading to the disease. Sulfiredoxin (Srx)-1 serves to protect from oxidative damages. Although BFT can generate reactive oxygen species in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), no Srx-1 expression has been reported in ETBF infection. In this study, we explored the effects of ETBF-produced BFT on Srx-1 induction in IECs. Treatment of IECs with BFT resulted in increased expression of Srx-1 in a time-dependent manner. BFT treatment also activated transcriptional signals including Nrf2, AP-1 and NF-κB, and the Srx-1 induction was dependent on the activation of Nrf2 signals. Nrf2 activation was assessed using immunoblot and Nrf2-DNA binding activity and the specificity was confirmed by supershift and competition assays. Suppression of NF-κB or AP-1 signals did not affect the upregulation of Srx-1 expression. Nrf2-dependent Srx-1 expression was associated with the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in IECs. Furthermore, suppression of Srx-1 significantly enhanced apoptosis while overexpression of Srx-1 significantly attenuated apoptosis during exposure to BFT. These results imply that a signaling cascade involving p38 and Nrf2 is essential for Srx-1 upregulation in IECs stimulated with BFT. Following this upregulation, Srx-1 may control the apoptosis in BFT-exposed IECs.