Micro RNAs In Regulation Of Cellular Redox Homeostasis
In living cells Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) participate in intra- and inter-cellular signaling and all cells contain specific systems that guard redox homeostasis. These systems contain both enzymes which may produce ROS such as NADPH-dependent and other oxidases or nitric oxide synthases, and ROS-neutralizing enzymes such as catalase, peroxiredoxins, thioredoxins, thioredoxin reductases, glutathione reductases, and many others. Most of the genes coding for these enzymes contain sequences targeted by micro RNAs (miRNAs), which are components of RNA-induced silencing complexes and play important roles in inhibiting translation of their targeted messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In this review we describe miRNAs that directly target and can influence enzymes responsible for scavenging of ROS and their possible role in cellular redox homeostasis. Regulation of antioxidant enzymes aims to adjust cells to survive in unstable oxidative environments; however, sometimes seemingly paradoxical phenomena appear where oxidative stress induces an increase in the levels of miRNAs which target genes which are supposed to neutralize ROS and therefore would be expected to decrease antioxidant levels. Here we show examples of such cellular behaviors and discuss the possible roles of miRNAs in redox regulatory circuits and further cell responses to stress.