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Diagnostic Tools And Biomarkers For Severe Drug Eruptions

Manabu Yoshioka, Yu Sawada, Motonobu Nakamura

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In accordance with the development of human technology, various medications have been speedily developed in the current decade. While they have beneficial impact on various diseases, these medications accidentally cause adverse reactions, especially drug eruption. This delayed hypersensitivity reaction in the skin sometimes causes a life-threatening adverse reaction, namely Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Therefore, how to identify these clinical courses in early time points is a critical issue. To improve this problem, various biomarkers have been found for these severe cutaneous adverse reactions through recent research. Granulysin, Fas ligands, perforin, and granzyme B are recognized as useful biomarkers to evaluate the early onset of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, and other biomarkers, such as miRNAs, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and S100A2, which are also helpful to identify the severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Because these tools have been currently well developed, updates of the knowledge in this field are necessary for clinicians. In this review, we focused on the detailed biomarkers and diagnostic tools for drug eruption and we also discussed the actual usefulness of these biomarkers in the clinical aspects based on the pathogenesis of drug eruption.