Cellular And Exosomal Regulations Of Sepsis-Induced Metabolic Alterations
Sepsis is a sustained systemic inflammatory condition involving multiple organ failures caused by dysregulated immune response to infections. Sepsis induces substantial changes in energy demands at the cellular level leading to metabolic reprogramming in immune cells and stromal cells. Although sepsis-associated organ dysfunction and mortality have been partly attributed to the initial acute hyperinflammation and immunosuppression precipitated by a dysfunction in innate and adaptive immune responses, the late mortality due to metabolic dysfunction and immune paralysis currently represent the major problem in clinics. It is becoming increasingly recognized that intertissue and/or intercellular metabolic crosstalk via endocrine factors modulates maintenance of homeostasis, and pathological events in sepsis and other inflammatory diseases. Exosomes have emerged as a novel means of intercellular communication in the regulation of cellular metabolism, owing to their capacity to transfer bioactive payloads such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids to their target cells. Recent evidence demonstrates transfer of intact metabolic intermediates from cancer-associated fibroblasts via exosomes to modify metabolic signaling in recipient cells and promote cancer progression. Here, we review the metabolic regulation of endothelial cells and immune cells in sepsis and highlight the role of exosomes as mediators of cellular metabolic signaling in sepsis.