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Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle Intermediates: Regulators Of Immune Responses

Inseo Choi, H. Son, Jea-Hyun Baek
Published 2021 · Medicine

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The tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) is a series of chemical reactions used in aerobic organisms to generate energy via the oxidation of acetylcoenzyme A (CoA) derived from carbohydrates, fatty acids and proteins. In the eukaryotic system, the TCA cycle occurs completely in mitochondria, while the intermediates of the TCA cycle are retained inside mitochondria due to their polarity and hydrophilicity. Under cell stress conditions, mitochondria can become disrupted and release their contents, which act as danger signals in the cytosol. Of note, the TCA cycle intermediates may also leak from dysfunctioning mitochondria and regulate cellular processes. Increasing evidence shows that the metabolites of the TCA cycle are substantially involved in the regulation of immune responses. In this review, we aimed to provide a comprehensive systematic overview of the molecular mechanisms of each TCA cycle intermediate that may play key roles in regulating cellular immunity in cell stress and discuss its implication for immune activation and suppression.
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