Methanol Synthesis From CO2: A Review Of The Latest Developments In Heterogeneous Catalysis
Technological approaches which enable the effective utilization of CO2 for manufacturing value-added chemicals and fuels can help to solve environmental problems derived from large CO2 emissions associated with the use of fossil fuels. One of the most interesting products that can be synthesized from CO2 is methanol, since it is an industrial commodity used in several chemical products and also an efficient transportation fuel. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in the development of heterogeneous catalysts and processes for the direct hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The main efforts focused on the improvement of conventional Cu/ZnO based catalysts and the development of new catalytic systems targeting the specific needs for CO2 to methanol reactions (unfavourable thermodynamics, production of high amount of water and high methanol selectivity under high or full CO2 conversion). Major studies on the development of active and selective catalysts based on thermodynamics, mechanisms, nano-synthesis and catalyst design (active phase, promoters, supports, etc.) are highlighted in this review. Finally, a summary concerning future perspectives on the research and development of efficient heterogeneous catalysts for methanol synthesis from CO2 will be presented.