Bottom Ash Modification Via Sintering Process For Its Use As A Potential Heavy Metal Adsorbent: Sorption Kinetics And Mechanism
Heavy metal pollution in the environment is a critical issue, engendering ecosystem deterioration and adverse effects on human health. The main objective of this study was to evaluate heavy metal adsorbents by modifying industrial byproducts. The bottom ash was sintered and evaluated for Cd and Pb sorption. Three adsorbents (bottom ash, sintered bottom ash (SBA), and SBA mixed with microorganisms (SBMA)) were tested to evaluate the sorption kinetics and mechanism using a lab-scale batch experiment. The results showed that the highest sorption efficiency was observed for Cd (98.16%) and Pb (98.41%) with 10% SBA. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 > 0.99) represented the sorption kinetics better than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model for the SBA and SBMA, indicating that chemical precipitation could be the dominant sorption mechanism. This result is supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, demonstrating that -OH, -CO3, -O, and -S complexation was formed at the surface of the sintered materials as Cd(OH)2 and CdCO3 for Cd and PbO, and PbS for Pb. Overall, SBA could be utilized for heavy metal sorption. Further research is necessary to enhance the sorption capacity and longevity of modified industrial byproducts.