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Sustainable Hydrothermal And Solvothermal Synthesis Of Advanced Carbon Materials In Multidimensional Applications: A Review

Lwazi Ndlwana, Naledi Raleie, Kgogobi M. Dimpe, Hezron F. Ogutu, Ekemena O. Oseghe, Mxolisi M. Motsa, Titus A.M. Msagati, Bhekie B. Mamba

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The adoption of green technology is very important to protect the environment and thus there is a need for improving the existing methods for the fabrication of carbon materials. As such, this work proposes to discuss, interrogate, and propose viable hydrothermal, solvothermal, and other advanced carbon materials synthesis methods. The synthesis approaches for advanced carbon materials to be interrogated will include the synthesis of carbon dots, carbon nanotubes, nitrogen/titania-doped carbons, graphene quantum dots, and their nanocomposites with solid/polymeric/metal oxide supports. This will be performed with a particular focus on microwave-assisted solvothermal and hydrothermal synthesis due to their favourable properties such as rapidity, low cost, and being green/environmentally friendly. These methods are regarded as important for the current and future synthesis and modification of advanced carbon materials for application in energy, gas separation, sensing, and water treatment. Simultaneously, the work will take cognisance of methods reducing the fabrication costs and environmental impact while enhancing the properties as a direct result of the synthesis methods. As a direct result, the expectation is to impart a significant contribution to the scientific body of work regarding the improvement of the said fabrication methods.