Isolation And Characterization Of Facultative-Anaerobic Antimonate-Reducing Bacteria
Microbial antimonate (Sb(V)) reduction is a promising approach to remove Sb(V) from wastewater. However, current knowledge regarding microbial Sb(V) reduction is limited to strictly anaerobic conditions. This study was the first to isolate three facultative-anaerobic Sb(V)-reducing bacterial strains from the sludge collected from a wastewater treatment facility in an antimony products plant. Two of the isolated strains, designated Dechloromonas sp. AR-2 and Propionivibrio sp. AR-3, were characterized based on their Sb(V)-reducing abilities. When cultivated under anaerobic conditions with Sb(V) and acetate as the electron acceptor and donor, respectively, both strains could efficiently reduce 5.0 mM Sb(V), removing most of it from the water phase within 7 d. Along with Sb(V) reduction by the strains, white precipitates, which were likely amorphous Sb(OH)3 solids, were formed with a minor generation of soluble antimonite. Additionally, respiratory Sb(V) reduction by both strains occurred not only under anaerobic but also microaerobic conditions. It was suggested that Sb(V) reduction and the growth abilities of the strains under microaerobic conditions presented a substantial advantage of the use of strains AR-2 and AR-3 for practical applications to Sb(V)-containing wastewater treatment.