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Porphyrin Derivative Nanoformulations For Therapy And Antiparasitic Agents

Daiana K. Deda, Bernardo A. Iglesias, Eduardo Alves, Koiti Araki, Celia R. S. Garcia

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Porphyrins and analogous macrocycles exhibit interesting photochemical, catalytic, and luminescence properties demonstrating high potential in the treatment of several diseases. Among them can be highlighted the possibility of application in photodynamic therapy and antimicrobial/antiparasitic PDT, for example, of malaria parasite. However, the low efficiency generally associated with their low solubility in water and bioavailability have precluded biomedical applications. Nanotechnology can provide efficient strategies to enhance bioavailability and incorporate targeted delivery properties to conventional pharmaceuticals, enhancing the effectiveness and reducing the toxicity, thus improving the adhesion to the treatment. In this way, those limitations can be overcome by using two main strategies: (1) Incorporation of hydrophilic substituents into the macrocycle ring while controlling the interaction with biological systems and (2) by including them in nanocarriers and delivery nanosystems. This review will focus on antiparasitic drugs based on porphyrin derivatives developed according to these two strategies, considering their vast and increasing applications befitting the multiple roles of these compounds in nature.