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Counteracting The Ramifications Of UVB Irradiation And Photoaging With Swietenia Macrophylla King Seed

Camille Keisha Mahendra, Syafiq Asnawi Zainal Abidin, Thet Thet Htar, Lay-Hong Chuah, Shafi Ullah Khan, Long Chiau Ming, Siah Ying Tang, Priyia Pusparajah, Bey Hing Goh

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In this day and age, the expectation of cosmetic products to effectively slow down skin photoaging is constantly increasing. However, the detrimental effects of UVB on the skin are not easy to tackle as UVB dysregulates a wide range of molecular changes on the cellular level. In our research, irradiated keratinocyte cells not only experienced a compromise in their redox system, but processes from RNA translation to protein synthesis and folding were also affected. Aside from this, proteins involved in various other processes like DNA repair and maintenance, glycolysis, cell growth, proliferation, and migration were affected while the cells approached imminent cell death. Additionally, the collagen degradation pathway was also activated by UVB irradiation through the upregulation of inflammatory and collagen degrading markers. Nevertheless, with the treatment of Swietenia macrophylla (S. macrophylla) seed extract and fractions, the dysregulation of many genes and proteins by UVB was reversed. The reversal effects were particularly promising with the S. macrophylla hexane fraction (SMHF) and S. macrophylla ethyl acetate fraction (SMEAF). SMHF was able to oppose the detrimental effects of UVB in several different processes such as the redox system, DNA repair and maintenance, RNA transcription to translation, protein maintenance and synthesis, cell growth, migration and proliferation, and cell glycolysis, while SMEAF successfully suppressed markers related to skin inflammation, collagen degradation, and cell apoptosis. Thus, in summary, our research not only provided a deeper insight into the molecular changes within irradiated keratinocytes, but also serves as a model platform for future cosmetic research to build upon. Subsequently, both SMHF and SMEAF also displayed potential photoprotective properties that warrant further fractionation and in vivo clinical trials to investigate and obtain potential novel bioactive compounds against photoaging.