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Acyclovir-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Optimization, Characterization And Evaluation Of Its Pharmacokinetic Profile

Haniza Hassan, R. O. Bello, S. K. Adam, Ekram Alias, M. M. R. Meor Mohd Affandi, A. Shamsuddin, Rusliza Basir
Published 2020 · Chemistry, Medicine

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Acyclovir is an antiviral drug used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infection. Its oral bioavailability is low; therefore, frequent and high doses are prescribed for optimum therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, the current therapeutic regimen of acyclovir is associated with unwarranted adverse effects, hence prompting the need for a suitable drug carrier to overcome these limitations. This study aimed to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as acyclovir carriers and evaluate their in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters to prove the study hypothesis. During the SLN development process, response surface methodology was exploited to optimize the composition of solid lipid and surfactant. Optimum combination of Biogapress Vegetal 297 ATO and Tween 80 was found essential to produce SLNs of 134 nm. The oral bioavailability study showed that acyclovir-loaded SLNs possessed superior oral bioavailability when compared with the commercial acyclovir suspension. The plasma concentration of acyclovir-loaded SLNs was four-fold higher than the commercial suspension. Thus, this investigation presented promising results that the method developed for encapsulation of acyclovir offers potential as an alternative pathway to enhance the drug’s bioavailability. In conclusion, this study exhibited the feasibility of SLNs as an oral delivery vehicle for acyclovir and therefore represents a new promising therapeutic concept of acyclovir treatment via a nanoparticulate drug delivery system.
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