Application Of Nanoparticles Alleviates Heavy Metals Stress And Promotes Plant Growth: An Overview
Nanotechnology is playing a significant role in addressing a vast range of environmental challenges by providing innovative and effective solutions. Heavy metal (HM) contamination has gained considerable attention in recent years due their rapidly increasing concentrations in agricultural soil. Due to their unique physiochemical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) can be effectively applied for stress alleviation. In this review, we explore the current status of the literature regarding nano-enabled agriculture retrieved from the Web of Science databases and published from January 2010 to November 2020, with most of our sources spanning the past five years. We briefly discuss uptake and transport mechanisms, application methods (soil, hydroponic and foliar), exposure concentrations, and their impact on plant growth and development. The current literature contained sufficient information about NPs behavior in plants in the presence of pollutants, highlighting the alleviation mechanism to overcome the HM stress. Furthermore, we present a broad overview of recent advances regarding HM stress and the possible mechanism of interaction between NPs and HM in the agricultural system. Additionally, this review article will be supportive for the understanding of phytoremediation and micro-remediation of contaminated soils and also highlights the future research needs for the combined application of NPs in the soil for sustainable agriculture.