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Carbon Dot Nanoparticles: Exploring The Potential Use For Gene Delivery In Ophthalmic Diseases

Manas R. Biswal, Sofia Bhatia

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Ocular gene therapy offers significant potential for preventing retinal dystrophy in patients with inherited retinal dystrophies (IRD). Adeno-associated virus (AAV) based gene transfer is the most common and successful gene delivery approach to the eye. These days, many studies are using non-viral nanoparticles (NPs) as an alternative therapeutic option because of their unique properties and biocompatibility. Here, we discuss the potential of carbon dots (CDs), a new type of nanocarrier for gene delivery to the retinal cells. The unique physicochemical properties of CDs (such as optical, electronic, and catalytic) make them suitable for biosensing, imaging, drug, and gene delivery applications. Efficient gene delivery to the retinal cells using CDs depends on various factors, such as photoluminescence, quantum yield, biocompatibility, size, and shape. In this review, we focused on different approaches used to synthesize CDs, classify CDs, various pathways for the intake of gene-loaded carbon nanoparticles inside the cell, and multiple studies that worked on transferring nucleic acid in the eye using CDs.