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In Vitro Characterization, Modelling, And Antioxidant Properties Of Polyphenon-60 From Green Tea In Eudragit S100-2 Chitosan Microspheres

Eliana B. Souto, Raquel da da Ana, Selma B. Souto, Aleksandra Zielińska, Conrado Marques, Luciana N. Andrade, Olaf K. Horbańczuk, Atanas G. Atanasov, Massimo Lucarini, Alessandra Durazzo, Amélia M. Silva, Ettore Novellino, Antonello Santini, Patricia Severino

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Eudragit S100-coated chitosan microspheres (S100Ch) are proposed as a new oral delivery system for green tea polyphenon-60 (PP60). PP60 is a mixture of polyphenolic compounds, known for its active role in decreasing oxidative stress and metabolic risk factors involved in diabetes and in other chronic diseases. Chitosan-PP60 microspheres prepared by an emulsion cross-linking method were coated with Eudragit S100 to ensure the release of PP60 in the terminal ileum. Different core–coat ratios of Eudragit and chitosan were tested. Optimized chitosan microspheres were obtained with a chitosan:PP60 ratio of 8:1 (Ch-PP608:1), rotation speed of 1500 rpm, and surfactant concentration of 1.0% (m/v) achieving a mean size of 7.16 µm. Their coating with the enteric polymer (S100Ch-PP60) increased the mean size significantly (51.4 µm). The in vitro modified-release of PP60 from S100Ch-PP60 was confirmed in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Mathematical fitting models were used to characterize the release mechanism showing that both Ch-PP608:1 and S100Ch-PP60 fitted the Korsmeyers–Peppas model. The antioxidant activity of PP60 was kept in glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosan microspheres before and after their coating, showing an IC50 of 212.3 µg/mL and 154.4 µg/mL, respectively. The potential of chitosan microspheres for the delivery of catechins was illustrated, with limited risk of cytotoxicity as shown in Caco-2 cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The beneficial effects of green tea and its derivatives in the management of metabolic disorders can be exploited using mucoadhesive chitosan microspheres coated with enteric polymers for colonic delivery.