Appetite Control Across The Lifecourse: The Acute Impact Of Breakfast Drink Quantity And Protein Content. The Full4Health Project
Understanding the mechanisms of hunger, satiety and how nutrients affect appetite control is important for successful weight management across the lifecourse. The primary aim of this study was to describe acute appetite control across the lifecourse, comparing age groups (children, adolescents, adults, elderly), weight categories, genders and European sites (Scotland and Greece). Participants (n = 391) consumed four test drinks, varying in composition (15% (normal protein, NP) and 30% (high protein, HP) of energy from protein) and quantity (based on 100% basal metabolic rate (BMR) and 140% BMR), on four separate days in a double-blind randomized controlled study. Ad libitum energy intake (EI), subjective appetite and biomarkers of appetite and metabolism (adults and elderly only) were measured. The adults’ appetite was significantly greater than that of the elderly across all drink types (p < 0.004) and in response to drink quantities (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in EI between age groups, weight categories, genders or sites. Concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) were significantly greater in the elderly than the adults (p < 0.001). Ghrelin and fasting leptin concentrations differed significantly between weight categories, genders and sites (p < 0.05), while GLP-1 and PYY concentrations differed significantly between genders only (p < 0.05). Compared to NP drinks, HP drinks significantly increased postprandial GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0.001). Advanced age was concomitant with reduced appetite and elevated anorectic hormone release, which may contribute to the development of malnutrition. In addition, appetite hormone concentrations differed between weight categories, genders and geographical locations.