Nanoparticle- And Nanoporous-Membrane-Mediated Delivery Of Therapeutics
Pharmaceutical particulates and membranes possess promising prospects for delivering drugs and bioactive molecules with the potential to improve drug delivery strategies like sustained and controlled release. For example, inorganic-based nanoparticles such as silica-, titanium-, zirconia-, calcium-, and carbon-based nanomaterials with dimensions smaller than 100 nm have been extensively developed for biomedical applications. Furthermore, inorganic nanoparticles possess magnetic, optical, and electrical properties, which make them suitable for various therapeutic applications including targeting, diagnosis, and drug delivery. Their properties may also be tuned by controlling different parameters, e.g., particle size, shape, surface functionalization, and interactions among them. In a similar fashion, membranes have several functions which are useful in sensing, sorting, imaging, separating, and releasing bioactive or drug molecules. Engineered membranes have been developed for their usage in controlled drug delivery devices. The latest advancement in the technology is therefore made possible to regulate the physico-chemical properties of the membrane pores, which enables the control of drug delivery. The current review aims to highlight the role of both pharmaceutical particulates and membranes over the last fifteen years based on their preparation method, size, shape, surface functionalization, and drug delivery potential.