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The Dynamic Inflammatory Tissue Microenvironment: Signality And Disease Therapy By Biomaterials

Rani Mata, Yuejun Yao, Wangbei Cao, Jie Ding, Tong Zhou, Zihe Zhai, Changyou Gao

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Tissue regeneration is an active multiplex process involving the dynamic inflammatory microenvironment. Under a normal physiological framework, inflammation is necessary for the systematic immunity including tissue repair and regeneration as well as returning to homeostasis. Inflammatory cellular response and metabolic mechanisms play key roles in the well-orchestrated tissue regeneration. If this response is dysregulated, it becomes chronic, which in turn causes progressive fibrosis, improper repair, and autoimmune disorders, ultimately leading to organ failure and death. Therefore, understanding of the complex inflammatory multiple player responses and their cellular metabolisms facilitates the latest insights and brings novel therapeutic methods for early diseases and modern health challenges. This review discusses the recent advances in molecular interactions of immune cells, controlled shift of pro- to anti-inflammation, reparative inflammatory metabolisms in tissue regeneration, controlling of an unfavorable microenvironment, dysregulated inflammatory diseases, and emerging therapeutic strategies including the use of biomaterials, which expand therapeutic views and briefly denote important gaps that are still prevailing.