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Response Of Maize (Zea Mays L.) Seedlings To Low And High Temperature: Association Mapping Of Root Growth And Photosynthesis-related Traits

R. Reimer
Published 2010 · Biology

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.............................................................................................................................................. 14 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................................15 MATERIAL AND METHODS..........................................................................................................................17 Plant growth: .................................................................................................................................. 17 Physiological measurements: ...........................................................................................................18 Experimental design and statistics:...................................................................................................18 Association mapping approach:........................................................................................................19 Test for group specificity:...................................................................................................................2 1 Classification of allele responses:................ ............................................................................................22 RESULTS............................................................................................................................................... 23 Seedling growth was strongly affected by chilling a nd moderately affected by heat:...........................23 The flint heterotic group was genetically separated from the dents, had greener and smaller leaves and a higher rate of photosynthesis under chilling:.....................................................................................23 Association studies: .......................................................................................................................... 26 Collocations of important traits describing shoot g rowth:.......................................................................27 There are more alleles with main effects on traits in the dent pool: .................................. ...........................27 The response of alleles to temperature extremes usu ally differed: ..................................... ..........................28 Flints exclusively carried alleles that increase ch illing tolerance of ΦPSII: .................................................. 28 DISCUSSION..............................................................................................................................................3 2 ФPSII and flints are a measure of high yield in flint x dent crosses: ...................................... ........................33 Pattern ax may indicate specific adaptation strategies: ...... . ...............................................................34 Associated genes involved in chilling or heat toler ance:........................................................................35 CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................................36 Chapter 3 .......................................... ..........................................................................................................38 Root response to temperature extremes: association mapping of temperate maize ( Zea mays L.)...............38 ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................................... 38.............................................................................................................................................. 38 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................................39 MATERIAL AND METHODS..........................................................................................................................41 Plant growth: .................................................................................................................................. 41 Imaging and analyses: ......................................................................................................................42 Experimental design and statistics:...................................................................................................43 Association mapping: ........................................................................................................................44 RESULTS............................................................................................................................................... 44 Chilling had the strongest effect on growth:......................................................................................44 Interactions among temperature and heterotic group were due to stronger elongation of axile roots of t he dents at optimal temperature: ...........................................................................................................46 Dents carried trait-increasing alleles for length a nd surface area of axile roots: .................... ......................46 Alleles mainly responded to close-to-optimal treatm ent and, similar to temperature extremes: .......... ........47 Flints carried alleles favoring chilling tolerance of root dry weight; dents carried alleles for highe r kLat/ERAx under heat stress:...............................................................................................................48 Response of ER Ax to temperature altered root morphology as indicate d by kLat/ERAx: ................................48 Linked genes involved in temperature response mecha nisms: ............................................. ........................49 DISCUSSION..............................................................................................................................................5 4 Morphology: .................................................................................................................................... 54 Root elongation vs. final root length: ............. .........................................................................................55 The response of alleles is similar at both temperat ure extremes: ...........................................................55 Allelic composition of heterotic groups: ............................................................................................56 Candidate pathways and their genes:...............................................................................................57 CONCLUSIONS...........................................................................................................................................58 Chapter 4 .......................................... ..........................................................................................................60 Temperature-dependent heterosis for photosynthesis of flint × dent crosses .............................................60 ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................................... 60.............................................................................................................................................. 60 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................................61 MATERIAL AND METHODS..........................................................................................................................62 Physiological and morphological measurements:...... ..............................................................................63 Experimental design and statistics:...................................................................................................63 RESULTS............................................................................................................................................... 66 The inbred lines differ at extreme and optimum temp rature UH002 and UH301 were both chilling tolerant:..........................................................................................................................................66 Performance of the hybrids: ..............................................................................................................67 Specific combinations of inbreds confer tolerance t o chilling or heat stress:.........................................68 MPH and BPH were positive for growth at optimum tem perature and positive for photosynthesis at the extreme temperatures: ......................................................................................................................70 DISCUSSION..............................................................................................................................................7 2 Are the requirements for temperature-dependent hete rosis, as based on dominance effects, met? ......... 73 Positive effects of heterosis on photosynthesis at the extreme temperatures:.......................... ... .................73 Is there any proof that the hypothetical scenarios contributed to adaptation of the hybrids to a wider range of temperature?............................................................................................................................... 74 CONCLUSIONS...........................................................................................................................................75 Chapter 5 .......................................... ..........................................................................................................76 An algorithm to separate axile and lateral roots of maize based on diameter c
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