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CD28 Costimulation And Parasite Dose Combine To Influence The Susceptibility Of BALB/c Mice To Infection With Leishmania Major1

H. Compton, J. Farrell
Published 2002 · Biology, Medicine

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Infection with Leishmania major in BALB/c mice is accompanied by the development of a nonprotective Th2-type response. It has previously been shown that disease progression, and the activation of a Th2-type response, can occur in the absence of CD28 costimulation following the inoculation of high numbers of L. major promastigotes. In this study, we show that in the absence of CD28-B7 interactions, BALB/c mice can spontaneously resolve their infections following the inoculation of low numbers of parasites. BALB/c CD28+/+ and CD28−/− mice were inoculated with 250, 500, and 750 metacyclic parasites. The CD28−/− mice controlled their lesions, whereas the wild-type (WT) mice developed progressive nonhealing infections. Resistance to infection was associated with reduced numbers of parasites in the CD28−/− mice compared with the WT mice. Infection of the CD28−/− mice resulted in the activation of a Th1-type response as evidenced by increased levels of mRNA for IFN-γ and reduced levels of message for IL-4 and IL-10 in draining lymph nodes compared with those in WT mice. Healing of infected CD28−/− mice could also be ablated with anti-CD4 Ab treatment or treatment with anti-IFN-γ Ab. In addition, healed CD28−/− mice were resistant to a challenge infection with L. major. These results suggest that CD28 costimulation influences the in vivo activation of a Th2-type response in a manner that is dependent on the size of the parasite inoculum.
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